Factsheets
Safe Use of HCFC Alternatives in Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning: Higher toxicity refrigerants
United Nations Environment Programme

As the phase out of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) progresses, it is expected that there will be a considerably higher uptake, in particular in developing countries, of ‘alternative refrigerants’, such as hydrocarbons, ammonia, carbon dioxide, unsaturated hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) –or HFOs. Many of these alternative refrigerants have particular characteristics in terms of toxicity, flammability and high pressure which are different from those used previously such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and HCFCs. When refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment is installed, serviced, repaired and dismantled, safety issues need to be carefully evaluated and considered particularly when servicing technicians have to deal with refrigerants with properties that they were previously not familiar with. It is therefore important that the refrigeration and airconditioning industry adapts to both the technical and safety issues concerning these refrigerants.


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Newsletters
OzonAction Special Issue 2009 - 2010 and Then?
United Nations Environment Programme

The OzonAction Special Issue (OASI) features articles from international experts on many important issues related to the Montreal Protocol. A special issue dedicated to stratospheric ozone and climate change related issues and the implementation of the Montreal Protocol, providing the most recent information on ozone protection activities from industry, governments, NGOs and international organizations. It is devoted to current topics of particular interest to Article 5 countries, i.e. maximizing climate benefits from ozone protection activities.


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Summaries
Key Scientific Findings for Lead
United Nations Environment Programme

Excerpt from Final review of scientific information on lead, version of December 2010


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