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Energy Profile: Cape Verde
United Nations Environment Programme

Cape Verde had a popuplation of just over half a million people in 2013 (World Bank, 2015). Total electricity produced in 2015 was 31 ktoe, 87 per cent of which was generated from fossil fuels (AFREC, 2015).


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Energy Profile: Zambia
United Nations Environment Programme

Total electricity production in 2015 was 1,025 ktoe, with 93.3 per cent from hydro and 6.5 per cent from fossil fuels. Final electricity consumption in the same year was 97 ktoe.


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Energy Profile: South Africa
United Nations Environment Programme

In 2015, total electricity produced was 25,399 ktoe, of which 90 per cent was produced from fossil fuels, 4.8 per cent from nuclear and 4.3 per cent from hydro. Final electricity consumption was 20,877 ktoe in the same year.


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Energy Profile: Burkina Faso
United Nations Environment Programme

Burkina Faso has a population of 17.08 million. Electricity production in 2015 was 69 ktoe with 89.8 per cent of it generated from fossil fuels. Final consumption of electricity in 2015 was 86 ktoe (AFREC, 2015).


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Chapters and Articles
Solar Solutions: Bridging the Energy Gap for Off-Grid Settlements - Frontiers 2017: Emerging Issues of Environmental Concern
Lemaire, Xavier, Kerr, Daniel

Recent years have seen an increased popularity of small distributed solar energy systems in low-income communities in Africa and Asia, where at least 95 per cent of the off-grid population reside. Advances in LED technology resulted in improved efficiency—more light emitted per electrical input. Highly polluting lead acid batteries are becoming obsolete, replaced by higher performance lithium ion batteries that provide higher energy storage capacity, longer service life, and faster and more efficient recharging.


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