Summaries
Uzbekistan climate facts and policy: policies and processes
Zoi Environment Network
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2015
Reports and Books
Designing a Sustainable Financial System in Bangladesh: Summary Briefing
United Nations Environment Programme

Innovations in policies, regulations and norms to shape a greener and more inclusive financial system are emerging in many places, but particularly in developing and emerging economies. Bangladesh has been a leader in this regard, as part of a sustained drive to ingrain a socially responsible institutional ethos in the financial sector. In particular it has developed a suite of green banking regulations and policies including concessional green refinancing, credit quotas for green finance and guidance and requirements on environmental due diligence. While there has not been an assessment of the impact of these policies, regular monitoring provides an insight into the scale of associated financial flows: - 1 billion Taka (US$13 million) of green refinancing was disbursed during FY10-FY14||44 billion Taka (US$0.5 billion) of loans were disbursed to key green sectors in 2014||354 billion Taka (US$4.5 billion) of loans were disbursed to industrial facilities with effluent treatment in 2014 (‘indirect green financing’)||1,581 billion Taka (US$20 billion) of loans were disbursed to high impact sectors where environmental due diligence had been carried out Green finance is growing but it remains modest compared to the scale of Bangladesh’s environmental, energy and industrial development imperatives. This paper provides initial ideas towards a national roadmap which could be developed with leadership and involvement not only of the Bangladesh Bank but also other financial regulators, financial institutions, the microcredit industry, civil society, stock exchanges, credit ratings and private standard setters. Key steps include: - Enhancing market practice –The practice of environmental risk management should be reviewed and continually strengthened. A protocol could also be developed to support assessment of clean energy and energy efficiency investments. Further advancements in information disclosure by listed companies and development of standards for green bonds would widen green finance beyond the banks||Leveraging private capital with public finance – The refinancing scheme should be assessed to establish where course corrections or new approaches might be warranted. Fiscal incentives might also be targeted to encourage the creation of long-term savings product and to provide credit enhancement to kick-start the development of a green bond market||Directing finance through policy - There is potential for greening SME Credit Policies and tightening green credit quotas to target specific areas such as solar energy and energy efficiency loans||Encouraging cultural transformation – Networks of green banking competency should continue to be built up. Further opportunities include exploring the linkages between Islamic banking and sustainable development and promoting a green investor’s network||Upgrading governance architecture – This could include aligning monetary targets with sustainability objectives, integrating green finance in the 7th five-year plan and establishing a green finance committee. These measures, concentrated on the financial system would be complementary to real economy measures such as environmental regulations and fossil fuel subsidy reform. It is a bold and exciting agenda, but also one that is practically achievable. Broadly speaking, action in the banking sector might be implemented most rapidly, with measures for debt and equity markets, institutional investment and insurance being developed as part of the broader growth in these markets.


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2015
Summaries
Economic Valuation of Wastewater - Executive Summary
United Nations Environment Programme

This is executive summary of a book that presents the results of an analytical study of the economic assessment of wastewater, comparing economic losses from inaction to the cost of effective wastewater management.


Download: Russian, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese, French, English
2015
Programme Performance Reports
Fund of the United Nations Environment Programme: Financial Report and Audited Financial Statements for the Year Ended 31 December 2015 and Report of the Board of Auditors
United Nations Environment Programme

The Board of Auditors has audited the financial statements and reviewed the operations of the Fund of the United Nations Environment Programme for the financial year ended 31 December 2015. The audit was carried out through the examination of financial transactions and operations at UNEP headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya, and Montreal, Canada, for the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol. The present report covers matters that, in the opinion of the Board, should be brought to the attention of the General Assembly and has been discussed with UNEP management, whose views have been reflected in the report. The audit was conducted primarily to enable the Board to form an opinion as to whether the financial statements present fairly the financial position of UNEP as at 31 December 2015 and its financial performance and cash flows for the year then ended, in accordance with the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS). The audit included a general review of financial systems and internal controls and a test examination of the accounting records and other supporting evidence to the extent that the Board considered necessary to form an opinion on the financial statements. The Board also reviewed UNEP operations in accordance with financial regulation 7.5 of the United Nations, which allows the Board to make observations on the efficiency of the financial procedures, the accounting system, the internal financial controls and, in general, the administration and management of operations. The report also includes a brief commentary on the status of implementation of recommendations from previous years.


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2015
Reports and Books
Phasing out HCFCs in Small and Medium-sized Foam Enterprises
United Nations Environment Programme

This document introduces the situation of the foam industry in the Asia-Paci c region, classi es the foam products and, describes where and how theyare used. It explains how to identify and access the foam SMEs, how to determine whether HCFCs are being used in any speci c SMEs, and how to verify the annual HCFC consumption based on the products inventory and other information.
It also discusses the alternative technologies and some speci c considerations in selecting alternatives that would suit the needs of SMEs. It introduces related policies, previous phase-out case studies in the foam sector in China and India, and provides some tips on how to overcome the barriers to the phase-out of HCFCs in the sector.


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2015
Reports and Books
The Montreal Protocol and Human Health: How Global Action Protects Us from the Ravages of Ultraviolet Radiation
United Nations Environment Programme

The booklet summarises current understanding of how changes in the ozone layer affect human health, not only in the world we live
in but also in the ‘World Avoided’. That is the world we would have lived in had we failed to control ozone depleting substances. By
examining the ‘World Avoided’ we clearly see, to echo the words of the Vienna Convention, the magnitude of the “harmful impact on
human health and the environment” that we have prevented through the effective implementation of the Montreal Protocol.


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2015
Manuals, Guides and Toolkits
Procedure for the Analysis of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Environmental and Human Matrices to Implement the Global Monitoring Plan under the Stockholm Convention Protocol 1: The Analysis of Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid (PFOS) in Water and Perfluorooctane Sulfonamide (FOSA) in Mothers’ Milk, Human Serum and Air, and the Analysis of Some Perfluorooctane Sulfonamides (FOSAS) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonamido Ethanols (FOSES) in Air
United Nations Environment Programme
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2015