Reports and Books
Pacific Islands: GIWA regional assessment
United Nations Environment Programme

This report presents the GIWA assessment of the Pacific Islands region, which comprises more than 20 Island nations or territories that exhibit enormous geomorphological, climatic, cultural and demographic diversity within a vast ocean expanse. The region is unique because its inhabitants, who have close links with, and great cultural, economic and spiritual dependence on, their terrestrial and marine environment, are often the owners and users of these resources and ultimately govern their conservation and sustainable use. In addition to highlighting the overexploitation of fish and other living resources in densely populated areas, this report emphasises the vulnerability of many of these small Island states to the impacts of climate change, particularly sea level rise and fluctuations in rainfall, which has enormous influence on the availability of freshwater in the region. The root causes of overexploitation and freshwater shortage are illustrated using several case studies and potential policy options and mitigate these problems in the future are discussed.


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2004
Reports and Books
Arctic Flora and Fauna: Status and Conservation
Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

Arctic Flora and Fauna: Status and Conservation is the first truly circumpolar overview of Arctic biodiversity written for the nonspecialist. It provides the reader with a clear understanding of the importance of the Earth's largest ecoregion and its status in the face of a rapidly changing world.


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2004

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Reports and Books
The use of economic instruments in environmental policy: opportunities and challenges
United Nations Environment Programme

This report seeks to help policy makers, especially in the developing world, to identify, evaluate and apply economic instruments to address a country's environmental problems within its national and local circumstances. It presents an innovative approach by offering tools for a comprehensive assessment of the country context and conditions and by tailoring solutions to the specific country needs. The report also provides practical guidance on identifying when economic instruments may be most appropriate, and on strengthening the support framework needed to introduce them.


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2004
Reports and Books
Global International Waters Assessment: Lake Chad Basin, GIWA Regional Assessment 43
University of Kalmar on behalf of United Nations Environment Programme

This report represents the GIWA Assessment of the Lake Chad Basin, which is located in one of the poorest and most drought prone regions in the world. Climatic variability and poor water governance has threatened the ecological and socio-economic integrity of the region. The past and present status and future prospects are discussed, and the transboundary issues traced back to their root causes. Policy options have been recommended that aim to address these driving issues and reverse the environmental degradation trends witnessed in the region over the past 30 years.


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2004
Reports and Books
Global International Waters Assessment: Caribbean Sea/Small Islands: GIWA Regional Assessment 3a
United Nations Environment Programme, GEF, University of Kalmar, Sweden

This report presents the GIWA assessment of the Small Islands sub-system of the Caribbean Sea region - an area particularly vulnerable to human activities owing to the fragility of the island ecosystems and their limited carrying capacities. Habitat and community modification, as a result of anthropogenic pressures, was found to cause the most severe transboundary environmental and socio-economic impacts in the sub-system. The governments regard rapid economic growth as a priority, which they have failed to balance with the conservation and protection of important ecosystems. The Causal chain analysis discusses the root causes of habitat and community modification by investigating the cause-effect pathways of the concern. Policy options are proposed that aim to provide solutions to these fundamental issues, in order to enhance the management of the region's aquatic environment


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2004

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