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Reports and Books
Global International Waters Assessment: Caribbean Sea/Small Islands: GIWA Regional Assessment 3a
United Nations Environment Programme, GEF, University of Kalmar, Sweden

This report presents the GIWA assessment of the Small Islands sub-system of the Caribbean Sea region - an area particularly vulnerable to human activities owing to the fragility of the island ecosystems and their limited carrying capacities. Habitat and community modification, as a result of anthropogenic pressures, was found to cause the most severe transboundary environmental and socio-economic impacts in the sub-system. The governments regard rapid economic growth as a priority, which they have failed to balance with the conservation and protection of important ecosystems. The Causal chain analysis discusses the root causes of habitat and community modification by investigating the cause-effect pathways of the concern. Policy options are proposed that aim to provide solutions to these fundamental issues, in order to enhance the management of the region's aquatic environment


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2004
Reports and Books
State of the Environment Report - 2004 - Ireland
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - Ireland

This third state of the environment report by the Environmental Protection Agency assesses and reports on the quality of Ireland's surface waters, air and natural resources and the impact of the main sectors on these valuable assets.


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2004
Reports and Books
Water and wastewater reuse: an environmentally sound approach for sustainable urban water management
United Nations Environment Programme, Global Environment Centre Foundation (GEC)

Water scarcity and water pollution pose a critical challenge in many developing countries. In urban areas, it is becoming difficult for the authorities to manage water supply and wastewater. Strategies for water and wastewater reuse can improve urban water management. This publication provides introductory guidelines for these strategies. The important aspects to minimize public health risks are identified. The possibilities of wastewater reuse in agriculture, industry, urban uses, and environmental water enhancement including groundwater recharge are discussed with the help of practical examples. The capacity building policy-making, institutional strengthening, financial mechanisms, and awareness raising and stakeholder participation are vital to implement these strategies for wastewater reuse.


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2004

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Reports and Books
Environmental Indicators in South Pacific
United Nations Environment Programme

Agenda 21 emphasized the need for developing indicators to provide the solid base for decision making at local, national, regional and global levels. The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation in 2002 reiterated the need for indicators to monitor economic, social and environmental progress for sustainable development. Goal 7 of the UN Millennium Development Goals is set for countries to ensure environmental sustainability through integrating principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes, and reverse the loss of environmental resources. This report on 'Environmental Indicators for South Pacific' has been prepared to present the trends of twenty three key indicators on air, water, land and biodiversity. It also presents trends on social and economic conditions through the selected indicators. Data have been collected for each indicator for each country in South Pacific for 1990, 1995 and 2000. This report provides an assessment of economic, social and environmental conditions in South Pacific based on available data and information. Lack of updated scientific database has been a major challenge in preparation of the report. This report highlights that South Pacific has the lowest population of all the sub-regions in Asia and the Pacific. South Pacific is economically and culturally a diverse sub-region consisting of developed countries such as Australia and New Zealand and smaller island nations with developing economies. The smaller island nations are being challenged by rapid urbanisation. These countries have fragile ecologies and it is imperative that the urbanisation process is tempered with awareness about the environment and safeguards to protect the natural environment along with improving living standards. This region also possesses great marine biodiversity. The Great Barrier Reef is the largest system of coral reefs in the world. This marine biodiversity is being threatened by increasing population, urbansiation and unsustainable land use patterns. Increasing global greenhouse gas emissions pose a threat to the lower lying islands of the sub-region. Water shortage and quality of drinking water are issues of concern in this sub-region. UNEP hopes that the 'Environmental Indicators for South Pacific' will be a useful document for government, nongovernment, regional and international organizations in the pursuit of developing policies and action plan. UNEP gratefully acknowledge the contribution of Environment Ministries, agencies, institutes and individuals in the preparation of the report.


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2004

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