Reports and Books
Global Mangrove Extent Much Smaller than Previously Estimated - UNEP Global Environmental Alert Services (GEAS) - October 2010
United Nations Environment Programme

As confirmed by the impacts of the December 2004 Asian tsunami and Hurricane Katrina in 2005 intact mangroves help stabilize shorelines and thus protect lives and property from such natural disasters. They also provide other ecosystem services such as breeding and nursing grounds for marine species and sources of food medicine fuel and building materials for local communities. In addition living mangroves store carbon keeping it out of the atmosphere. It is possible that mangroves and the soils they grow in could sequester about 22.8 million metric tonnes of carbon each year. Mangrove forests occur between the sea and land and are thought to cover about a quarter of the world's tropical and subtropical intertidal zones mostly between 5° N and 5° S latitude. Research reveals that the forests have been declining at an alarming rate however' perhaps even faster than inland tropical forests' and much of what is left is degraded.


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2010
Reports and Books
Building the Foundations for Sustainable Nutrient Management. A publication of the Global Partnership on Nutrient Management
United Nations Environment Programme

This booklet focuses on the use, effects and management of two key nutrients - nitrogen and phosphorous. Together they play an important role in the global and local sustainable development agendas. On the one hand, their production and use means higher levels of crop production and food security. On the other hand, their excess use and production, the result of a range of important human activities, leads to severe pollution of air, water, land and sea around the world. The present result is an apparent divide between societal needs for food and energy and a complex web of adverse environmental impacts, which undermine ecosystems and the services, and livelihoods they provide. This conundrum is set to intensify, to the cost of countries as demand for food and energy increase and the levels of demand for nitrogen and phosphorous grow.


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2010

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Reports and Books
The 4th National Report of Iraq - Convention on Biological Diversity
Ministry of Environment - Republic of Iraq

It is fitting that as Iraq issues its first comprehensive report on the biological diversity of the country, the United Nations designates 2010 as the International Year of Biodiversity. Environmental issues such as biodiversity have not played a large part in the recent public discourse in Iraq, which to a large extent has been preoccupied with security and reconstruction. That being said, environmental concerns represent a significant challenge within Iraq that are complicating the development of the country, such as: water resource management||decline in biodiversity||waste management||oil development and industrial pollution and environmental impacts caused by decades of war and conflict. In 2009, Iraq signed the Convention for Biological Diversity (SCBD, 2009a) and initiated the first attempt to address the issue of biodiversity degradation that has plagued the country. This document is the first national report to be submitted to the CBD Secretariat as part of Iraq’s obligations as a Party to the Convention. It will examine and report on the status of biodiversity within Iraq and lay the groundwork for development of a national biodiversity strategy and action plan (NBSAP) to protect the diverse and vital species and ecosystems of Iraq.


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2010
Reports and Books
Metal stocks in society: scientific synthesis
United Nations Environment Programme

The continued increase in the use of metals over the twentieth century has led to a substantial shift from geological resource base to metal stocks in society. This report reviews the relevant literature on this topic. From a compilation of 54 studies, it is clear that a reasonably detailed picture of in-use stocks and in-use lifetimes exists for only five metals: aluminum, copper, iron, lead, and zinc. Limited data suggest that per capita in-use stocks in more developed countries typically exceed those in less-developed countries by factors of five to ten.


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2010
Reports and Books
Climate action 2010-2011
United Nations Environment Programme

This publications was produced to coincide with the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP), Climate Action provides an essential platform for governments, international opinion leaders, industry experts, distinguished academics and environmentalists to debate the business case for sustainable development and carbon neutrality.


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2010