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Reports and Books
GEO Ciudad de Mexico : 2003
United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Environment Programme y el Centro de Investigacion en Geografia y Geomatica

This report is a part of the GEO cities project and is a tool that seeks to enhance the decision making process and promote strategic action. It was prepared within the PSIR framework -Pressure, State, Impact and Response. As such, the report addresses environmental issues in an integrated manner that appreciates the diverse dynamics in environmental issues.


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2003

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Reports and Books, Manuals and Guides
Sea water desalination in the Mediterranean assessment and guidelines
United Nations Environment Programme

The need for desalting seawater is becoming more and more pressing in many parts of the world. During the period from 1950 to 1990 the worldwide consumption of water was tripled, while the population grew by 2.3 billion people. In the Mediterranean, the present and future water needs are really increasing. It is estimated that by the year 2010 water demands will increase by 32% at least for the southern and eastern countries. There is no doubt that the above water needs can be covered and satisfied if only non-conventional resources of water are utilized, like water- recycling and desalination. Desalination has for a long time been a major source of water in parts of the Mediterranean. Desalination plants exist in places that have hot climates, relatively low and unpredictable rainfall and where conventional water resources are unable to meet peak tourist demands. Seawater desalination by Mediterranean countries is a steadily growing industry. This practically unlimited resource of water requires energy consumption and results to environmental impacts. These impacts are generated mainly from the concentrate (brine) produced during the desalination, but also from the discharges of chemicals used in the desalination processes. Although the number of scientific publications dealing with the issue is limited, the discharge of concentrate into the sea requires particular attention and scientific assessment of possible impacts on the marine environment. There is no doubt that Mediterranean countries, which use desalination to cover their freshwater needs, should apply appropriate guidelines or procedures for the disposal of brine according to the LBS and Dumping Protocol. As a result, this document was prepared to offer a basis for discussion aiming at identifying a common management approach in line with the Barcelona Convention and its Protocols.


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2003
Reports and Books
Tourism and local agenda 21: the role of local authorities in sustainable tourism
United Nations Environment Programme, International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI)

This Study looks at how tourism has been taken into account in local Agendas 21, as drawn up and implemented by local authorities. As local authorities face the impacts of tourism development, the Agenda 21 planning framework is useful to define strategic goals for all stakeholders, and to effectively use tourism to achieve a community's main goals. A coherent collection of case studies of the implementation of Local Agenda 21 structures and processes in many destinations, it highlights lessons learned, and compares various situations ranging from developing to established municipalities and regions, in continental and island settings.


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2003

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Reports and Books
A manual for water and waste management: what the tourism industry can do to improve its performance
United Nations Environment Programme

This manual provides guidelines and examples of how tourism operations can achieve positive results and minimize harm to a community's ecological and physical systems. Specific case studies highlight larger hotel chains, which have already implemented environmental management systems but the main focus is on SMEs in developing countries, Small Island Developing States and developing tourism destinations.


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2003