Reports and Books
The Value of Everything
United Nations Environment Programme

Discussions regarding the global financial system often happen without a complete and robust understanding of the total value, impact and relevance of all stocks and flows. Indeed, even the “Value of Everything” is not known, insofar as that being measured as the total present day market value of all global capital assets, let alone the relevance of ongoing flows of commerce as they impact the system. The purpose of this paper is to begin the process of clarifying global asset value especially as may be affected by the sustainability (or lack thereof) of financial systems, and not just that which is represented by institutional assets under management. Often such attempts to assess the value of financial markets only look at total managed assets by financial institutions, or through attempts to assess somewhat isolated international money flows via say Community Development Financial Institutions alone, among what is in effect a series of partial analysis on this question that exist in the literature. This paper, therefore, will answer this question of what is the actual total value of all global asset classes individually and in aggregate, towards helping inform money flows as they relate to this overall global stock, and how do they or can they influence total value, as well as how should these stocks and flows shift to enable the financial system to become truly sustainable and how to measure for that. Attempts have been made to assess the value of global assets but they are always insufficient for purpose, either missing categories such as the value of state-owned enterprises, the value of people’s homes, the true nature of cash in the market and more. Such partial analysis has revealed useful aspects of this single total value figure, which we will make good use of, but our picture will be holistic and complete, or will certainly attempt to be so. The first place to start then is in establishing categories of assets needed to be understood in order to fully assess a static, present day Value of Everything. We start with a look at publicly traded companies, fixed income as an asset class, as well as property owned by individuals or in managed portfolios. These are the three largest categories of assets by value. State-owned enterprises need to be added to this picture as does the total value of infrastructure portfolios (both through direct investment and project finance). Private equity and venture capital are rising in relevance and they too will be assessed as will the value of so-called real assets encompassing forests, commodities and more, and finally the value of issued dollars in the market both in cash and in the nominal value of instruments not directly tied to assets. This analysis will represent a first single static Value of Everything, in effect the total value of global assets.


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2015
Reports and Books
Policy Coherence of the Sustainable Development Goals: A Natural Resource Perspective
United Nations Environment Programme

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim, by 2030, to end human deprivation worldwide. They represent a coherent, collective vision of a better future for all and provide a framework by which progress towards this vision may be monitored. One of the great strengths of the SDG framework in its current formulation is its recognition of the intimate links between human well-being, economic prosperity and a healthy environment. In its adoption, it must send out a clear message that restoring and maintaining the health of the natural resource base is a necessary condition for eradicating poverty and sustaining economic progress for all.


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2015
Reports and Books
New Rules for New Horizons: Report of the High Level Symposium on Reshaping Finance for Sustainability
United Nations Environment Programme

Finance is the means by which we channel accumulated wealth into productive new activities to generate more real wealth and wellbeing.


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2015
Reports and Books
The Future of the Bornean Orangutan: impacts of change in land cover and climate

Over the past century, orangutan populations in Southeast Asia have seen a very steep decline, driven to the brink of extinction by a host of man-made threats. Deforestation, illegal logging, the expansion of agro-industrial plantations and hunting – these forces combined to isolate orangutans into precarious pockets of forest on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. Now, a new threat has emerged: climate change. This report from the Great Apes Survival Partnership (GRASP) and the Liverpool John Moores University assesses the impacts of land cover change and climate change on Borneo's endangered orangutans. The report also examines the major driver of deforestation – the expansion of oil palm – and analyses how various land-use scenarios might impact the region through different climate change projections. The report concludes, sadly, that a combined model of climate change and landuse change could result in a further three quarter loss of orangutan habitat from the present day.


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2015
Reports and Books
Living Blue Planet Report Species, habitats and human well-being
World Wildlife Fund (WWF)

Nearly 3 billion people rely on fish as a major source of protein. Overall, fisheries and aquaculture assure the livelihoods of 10–12 per cent of the world’s population. 60 per cent of the world’s populatio n lives within 100km of the coast. Marine vertebrate populations declined 49 per cent between 1970 and 2012. populations of fish species utilized by humans have fallen by half, with some of the most important species experiencing even greater declines. Around one in four species of sharks, rays and skates is now threatened with extinction, due primarily to overfishing.


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2015
Reports and Books
The Regional State of the Coast Report: Western Indian Ocean
United Nations Environment Programme

The Regional State of Coast Report for the western Indian Ocean (WIO) is the first comprehensive regional synthesis to provide insights into the enormous economic potential around the WIO, the consequential demand for marine ecosystem goods and services to match the increasing human population, the pace and scale of environmental changes taking place in the region and the opportunities to avoid serious degradation in one of the world’s unique and highly biodiverse oceans. The report goes a step further and presents exploratory scenarios and policy analysis to better inform anticipatory planning and management of coastal and marine resources.


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2015
Reports and Books
An introduction to environmental assessment
United Nations Environment Programme

This guide can serve as a useful, quick-reference source of information for all audiences concerned with decision and policy making in regard to the environment and sustainable development.


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2015
Reports and Books
Product Sustainability Information: State of Play and Way Forward
United Nations Environment Programme

Unsustainable patterns of consumption and production threaten global development and environmental wellbeing. Ensuring sustainable consumption and production should take a life cycle approach, and central to this is the development of product sustainability information (PSI). This publication provides four key recommendations in order to advance a coherent and context-relevant use of PSI that is useful for consumer decision-making: 1. Provide a global guidance for inter-operability of PSI tools (their development and use), and manage concerns over trade barriers while reducing uncertainty in the information that the tools produce. This can be done under the umbrella of the Consumer Information Programme under the 10 Year Framework of Programmes. 2. Encourage major PSI actors, i.e. label and tools associations to use life cycle-based principles as criteria for the alignment of their work. 3. Facilitate the inclusion and engagement of representatives of developing and emerging economies in international efforts on PSI. 4. Create an international dialogue between brand owners, retailers, consumer organisations and policymakers in order to acknowledge the different cultures and contexts to develop a better understanding of what consumers will recognise to be information that is credible upon which they can act.


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2015
Reports and Books
ECGFS Detailed Recommendation 7: Emissions Trading
United Nations Environment Programme

In 2014 the Research Bureau of the People’s Bank of China convened a Green Finance Task Force made up of 40 experts from ministries, financial regulators, academics, banks and other financial institutions, complemented by international experts brought together by the UNEP Inquiry to consider the steps that China could take to establish a green financial system.This detailed report on one of the fourteen recommendations complements the main report."


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2015
Reports and Books
ECGFS Detailed Recommendation 5: Green Bonds
United Nations Environment Programme

In 2014 the Research Bureau of the People’s Bank of China convened a Green Finance Task Force made up of 40 experts from ministries, financial regulators, academics, banks and other financial institutions, complemented by international experts brought together by the UNEP Inquiry to consider the steps that China could take to establish a green financial system.This detaildd report on one of the fourteen recommendations complements the main report."


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2015