Reports and Books
The use of economic instruments in environmental policy: opportunities and challenges
United Nations Environment Programme

This report seeks to help policy makers, especially in the developing world, to identify, evaluate and apply economic instruments to address a country's environmental problems within its national and local circumstances. It presents an innovative approach by offering tools for a comprehensive assessment of the country context and conditions and by tailoring solutions to the specific country needs. The report also provides practical guidance on identifying when economic instruments may be most appropriate, and on strengthening the support framework needed to introduce them.


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2004
Reports and Books
Global International Waters Assessment: Brazil Current, GIWA Regional Assessment 39
University of Kalmar on behalf of United Nations Environment Programme

This report presents the assessment of the GIWA region Brazil Current, including drainage basins and their associated coastal/marine zones. Three separate sub-regions have been assessed within the region: the South/Southeast Atlantic Basins, East Atlantic Basins, and So Francisco River Basin. Increased anthropogenic pressures due to economic development and urbanisation in the coastal area have polluted the water environment and caused severe impact on important ecosystems such as coastal plains and mangrove ecosystems. Significant changes in the suspended solids transport/sedimentation dynamics in the river basins due to unsustainable land use practices associated to intense deforestation and damming has caused increasing erosion of coastal zones, siltation of riverbeds, and modified the stream flows resulting in periods of water scarcity and flooding in some basins. The root causes of pollution and habitat and community modification are identified for the bi-national Mirim Lagoon Basin, a transboundary freshwater body shared between Brazil and Uruguay, and Doce River Basin that hosts biomes of global importance. Potential remedial policy options are presented.


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2004
Reports and Books
Global International Waters Assessment: Caribbean Islands, GIWA Regional Assessment 4
United Nations Environment Programme, GEF, University of Kalmar, Sweden

This report presents the GIWA assessment of the Caribbean Islands region-an archipelago comprising drainage basins and coastal areas that contain some of the world's most diverse and productive habitats. A variety of human activities are impacting the region's sensitive and unique ecosystems, upon which the population is so dependent for their social well-being and economic survival. Pollution, originating from both land-based sources and marine traffic, is of particular concern, but despite considerable and widespread environmental and socio-economic impacts, there has been a lack of appropriate measures aimed at mitigating this concern. The past and present status and future prospects are discussed, and the trans-boundary issues of pollution are traced back to their root causes. Policy options are analyzed that aim to address these driving issues in order to significantly improve environmental quality and secure the region's future prosperity.


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2004
Reports and Books
Fisheries subsidies and marine resource management: lessons from Bangladesh
United Nations Environment Programme

This study includes a discussion on the policy evolution, the intervening factors and the consequences of trade liberalization on marine fisheries in Bangladesh.


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2004
Reports and Books
Environmental indicators in South Asia
United Nations Environment Programme

Environmental Indicators in South Asia


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2004
Reports and Books
From conflict to sustainable development: assessment and clean up in Serbia and Montenegro
United Nations Environment Programme

The assessment report studies the conflicting situation in Serbia, Montenegro and journey towards sustainable development


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2004
Reports and Books
Report of the UNEP roundtable of Iraqi marshland management 21-22 September 2004
United Nations Environment Programme

The Amman Roundtable on Iraqi Marshland Management was organized by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) on 21 and 22 September 2004 in Amman, Jordan. The Roundtable was one of the initial activities for UNEPs Support for Environmental Management of the Iraqi Marshlands project, which is being implemented within the framework of the United Nations Trust Fund for Iraqi Reconstruction. Dialogue during the project preparation process, with the Iraqi counterparts, UN agencies within the UN Trust Fund mechanism, and donor agencies, identified a clear need to discuss various on-going initiatives and to facilitate coordinated response for marshland management. UNEP was requested to organize a meeting to address this need.


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2004
Reports and Books
From conflict to sustainable development-assessment of environmental hot spots: Serbia and Montenegro
United Nations Environment Programme

This report is not a comprehensive list of ‘hot spots' but the independent review of the Programme's work and an assessment of the priorities for the future at the sites and municipalities visited.


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2004
Reports and Books
Barents Sea - GIWA Regional Assessment 11
United Nations Environment Programme, GIWA

This report presents the results of the UNEP/GIWA assessment for the Barents Sea region.


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2004
Reports and Books
Environmental Indicators in South Pacific
United Nations Environment Programme

Agenda 21 emphasized the need for developing indicators to provide the solid base for decision making at local, national, regional and global levels. The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation in 2002 reiterated the need for indicators to monitor economic, social and environmental progress for sustainable development. Goal 7 of the UN Millennium Development Goals is set for countries to ensure environmental sustainability through integrating principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes, and reverse the loss of environmental resources. This report on 'Environmental Indicators for South Pacific' has been prepared to present the trends of twenty three key indicators on air, water, land and biodiversity. It also presents trends on social and economic conditions through the selected indicators. Data have been collected for each indicator for each country in South Pacific for 1990, 1995 and 2000. This report provides an assessment of economic, social and environmental conditions in South Pacific based on available data and information. Lack of updated scientific database has been a major challenge in preparation of the report. This report highlights that South Pacific has the lowest population of all the sub-regions in Asia and the Pacific. South Pacific is economically and culturally a diverse sub-region consisting of developed countries such as Australia and New Zealand and smaller island nations with developing economies. The smaller island nations are being challenged by rapid urbanisation. These countries have fragile ecologies and it is imperative that the urbanisation process is tempered with awareness about the environment and safeguards to protect the natural environment along with improving living standards. This region also possesses great marine biodiversity. The Great Barrier Reef is the largest system of coral reefs in the world. This marine biodiversity is being threatened by increasing population, urbansiation and unsustainable land use patterns. Increasing global greenhouse gas emissions pose a threat to the lower lying islands of the sub-region. Water shortage and quality of drinking water are issues of concern in this sub-region. UNEP hopes that the 'Environmental Indicators for South Pacific' will be a useful document for government, nongovernment, regional and international organizations in the pursuit of developing policies and action plan. UNEP gratefully acknowledge the contribution of Environment Ministries, agencies, institutes and individuals in the preparation of the report.


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2004