Global environment outlook (GEO), Chapters and Articles
Biodiversity - Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 6
United Nations Environment Programme

Biodiversity is in crisis. There is well-established evidence indicating an irrevocable and continuing decline of genetic and species diversity, and degradation of ecosystems at local and global scales. Scientists are increasingly concerned that, if anthropogenic pressures on Biodiversity continue unabated, we risk precipitating a sixth mass extinction event in Earth history, with profound impacts on human health and equity.


Download:
2019
Global environment outlook (GEO), Chapters and Articles
Introduction and Context - Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 1
United Nations Environment Programme

Under the theme of ‘Healthy Planet, Healthy People,’ the sixth Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6) is an integrated assessment which considers various scienti c perspectives and inputs from across the world in a holistic manner. The assessment urges the world’s decision makers and all citizens to apply the principles of sustainable development to help ensure that Earth’s environment remains the foundation of society and of people’s well-being and resilience.


Download:
2019
Global environment outlook (GEO), Chapters and Articles
Cross-cutting Issues - Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 4
United Nations Environment Programme

As understanding of the interdependence between a healthy planet and healthy people becomes more developed, complex issues that thread through systems and societies gain new importance. Beyond the traditional Global Environment Outlook (GEO) themes addressing air, biodiversity, oceans, land and fresh water, this GEO-6 assessment addresses cross-cutting issues worthy of further examination. Using
a systems approach, these cross-cutting issues offerentry points allowing another dimension for analysing GEO-6 themes as well as understanding the network of interconnections throughout earth and human systems.


Download:
2019
Global environment outlook (GEO), Chapters and Articles
Land and Soil Policy - Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 15
United Nations Environment Programme

This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the current Land and Soil policy framework and the related shortcomings, especially in terms of policy cohesion and implementation, as well as overall effectiveness. The subsequent sections present case studies of different sets of legal and policy instruments, economic tools and incentives, as well as policies and programmes implemented across different countries. The case studies were selected based on the criteria of regional balance, different spatial scales, type of policies and/or governance arrangements, plus their relevance to state and trends of land resources as detailed in Chapter 8 of this report.


Download:
Global environment outlook (GEO), Chapters and Articles
Air - Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 5
United Nations Environment Programme

In the GEO-6 regional assessments, air pollution, climate change and energy development, as well as the intersection
of these three issues, were identi ed as top priorities in every region. Growing cities, energy, and transportation demand were consistently identi ed as issues of concern. Indoor air pollution and access to clean household energy were priorities in Africa and Asia. Other regional priorities highlight differences in theinstitutional capacities of governments in different regions: improving observational networks (Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, West Asia), strengthening governance (Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean), and understanding costs and bene ts of mitigation measures (Asia). The following sections build upon the GEO-6 regional assessments to explore the state of these challenges from a global perspective.


Download:
Global environment outlook (GEO), Chapters and Articles
Freshwater Policy - Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 16
United Nations Environment Programme

Through case studies and an analysis of indicators related to the SDGs, this chapter shows how the nexus concept matters in relation to policy effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.


Download:
Global environment outlook (GEO), Chapters and Articles
Systemic Policy Approaches for Cross-cutting Issues - Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 17
United Nations Environment Programme

This chapter evaluates the capacity of environmental policies to achieve transformational change in addressing cross-cutting global sustainable development challenges. To this end, the chapter addresses the major challenges of adapting socioeconomic systems to climate change, creating a sustainable agricultural and food production system, decarbonizing energy systems, and creating a circular economy.


Download:
Global environment outlook (GEO), Chapters and Articles
Oceans and Coasts - Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 7
United Nations Environment Programme

Oceans have many uses, and there are too many linkages among marine ecosystems and between the land and adjacent seas to review them all in this chapter. The First Global Integrated Marine Assessment (A/RES/70/235; Inniss and Simcock eds. 2016) and reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2013) have provided recent comprehensive reviews of the state of the ocean. Therefore, three topics have been selected here that warrant particular attention – tropical coral reefs, shing and debris entering the marine environment. Several topics of emerging or particular interest – mercury, sand mining, deep sea mining and ocean noise – are also brie y considered.


Download:
Global environment outlook (GEO), Chapters and Articles
Conclusions of Policy Effectiveness - Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 18
United Nations Environment Programme

The analysis in GEO-6 of environmental policies and their integration demonstrates the diversity of institutional and cultural frameworks in which policymaking takes place. The roles of law, values, administrative capacities, socioeconomic conditions, and so on, are important in how effective policies can be. The design of policies that re ect on this set of conditions is important.


Download:
Global environment outlook (GEO), Chapters and Articles
Land and Soil - Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 8
United Nations Environment Programme

The main messages of the fth report of the Global Environment Outlook (GEO-5) could be extrapolated to GEO-6. Perhaps the most important difference is the recognition of climate change as a driver of environmental change, and how it has the potential for altering land resources on its own (see Chapter 2). Climate change usually exacerbates ecosystem degradation and a more variable climate degrades ecosystems more strongly. Another difference is the increasing recognition of the critical function that clear property rights play for land-resource stewardship and the crucial role of rural inhabitants in land conservation.


Download: