Global environment outlook (GEO), Chapters and Articles
Introduction and Context - Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 1
United Nations Environment Programme

Under the theme of ‘Healthy Planet, Healthy People,’ the sixth Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6) is an integrated assessment which considers various scienti c perspectives and inputs from across the world in a holistic manner. The assessment urges the world’s decision makers and all citizens to apply the principles of sustainable development to help ensure that Earth’s environment remains the foundation of society and of people’s well-being and resilience.


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2019
Global environment outlook (GEO), Chapters and Articles
Cross-cutting Issues - Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 4
United Nations Environment Programme

As understanding of the interdependence between a healthy planet and healthy people becomes more developed, complex issues that thread through systems and societies gain new importance. Beyond the traditional Global Environment Outlook (GEO) themes addressing air, biodiversity, oceans, land and fresh water, this GEO-6 assessment addresses cross-cutting issues worthy of further examination. Using
a systems approach, these cross-cutting issues offerentry points allowing another dimension for analysing GEO-6 themes as well as understanding the network of interconnections throughout earth and human systems.


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2019
Global environment outlook (GEO), Chapters and Articles
Biodiversity - Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 6
United Nations Environment Programme

Biodiversity is in crisis. There is well-established evidence indicating an irrevocable and continuing decline of genetic and species diversity, and degradation of ecosystems at local and global scales. Scientists are increasingly concerned that, if anthropogenic pressures on Biodiversity continue unabated, we risk precipitating a sixth mass extinction event in Earth history, with profound impacts on human health and equity.


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2019
Global environment outlook (GEO), Chapters and Articles
Oceans and Coasts - Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 7
United Nations Environment Programme

Oceans have many uses, and there are too many linkages among marine ecosystems and between the land and adjacent seas to review them all in this chapter. The First Global Integrated Marine Assessment (A/RES/70/235; Inniss and Simcock eds. 2016) and reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2013) have provided recent comprehensive reviews of the state of the ocean. Therefore, three topics have been selected here that warrant particular attention – tropical coral reefs, shing and debris entering the marine environment. Several topics of emerging or particular interest – mercury, sand mining, deep sea mining and ocean noise – are also brie y considered.


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Global environment outlook (GEO), Chapters and Articles
Conclusions of Policy Effectiveness - Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 18
United Nations Environment Programme

The analysis in GEO-6 of environmental policies and their integration demonstrates the diversity of institutional and cultural frameworks in which policymaking takes place. The roles of law, values, administrative capacities, socioeconomic conditions, and so on, are important in how effective policies can be. The design of policies that re ect on this set of conditions is important.


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Global environment outlook (GEO), Chapters and Articles
Land and Soil - Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 8
United Nations Environment Programme

The main messages of the fth report of the Global Environment Outlook (GEO-5) could be extrapolated to GEO-6. Perhaps the most important difference is the recognition of climate change as a driver of environmental change, and how it has the potential for altering land resources on its own (see Chapter 2). Climate change usually exacerbates ecosystem degradation and a more variable climate degrades ecosystems more strongly. Another difference is the increasing recognition of the critical function that clear property rights play for land-resource stewardship and the crucial role of rural inhabitants in land conservation.


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Global environment outlook (GEO), Chapters and Articles
Outlooks in GEO-6 - Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 19
United Nations Environment Programme

Parts A and B of the sixth Global Environmental Outlook (GEO- 6) indicate that the current global development trends and their future trajectories are not sustainable. At the same time, nations worldwide have agreed on a set of ambitious goals as part of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a broad range of multilateral environmental agreements and other frameworks. Together, they aim for halting environmental degradation and aim to enable better development pathways that can bene t both humans and the ecosystems that support human well-being.
The key questions now are whether future trends would lead to the achievement of these ambitious goals and thereby a more sustainable future – and, if not, what would be required, both in policy and practice, to bend the trend towards positive and sustainable development pathways. Part C of GEO-6 aims to provide an integrated and holistic view of the scienti c information to address these questions. It presents new approaches to developing science-based information for decision makers, by combining scenario-based quantitative projections (de ned here as top-down approaches) with grass- roots and participatory methods (bottom-up) approaches.


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Global environment outlook (GEO), Chapters and Articles
Freshwater - Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 9
United Nations Environment Programme

The sixth Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6) highlights links between water (SDG 6) and health (SDG 3).


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Global environment outlook (GEO), Chapters and Articles
A Long-term Vision for 2050 - Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 20
United Nations Environment Programme

In this chapter, we de ne the vision used for the scenario analysis of GEO-6, taking a long-term perspective, beyond 2030. This vision uses the SDGs as an overarching, integrated set of goals and targets to start from, selecting key environment- related targets, and, where relevant, further quantifying these with targets from related MEAs or the scienti c literature. This long-term vision addresses the theme of GEO-6 – Healthy Planet, Healthy People – by focusing on global environmental targets linked to the ve themes discussed in Part A (State of the Global Environment), and related multidimensional poverty and health targets. In Chapters 21 and 22 the existing scenario literature is assessed, to allow discussion of future developments with respect to these targets and the pathways towards achieving them.


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Global environment outlook (GEO), Chapters and Articles
Approach to Assessment of Policy Effectiveness - Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 10
United Nations Environment Programme
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