Reports and Books, GEO, Summaries
GEO Health: City of São Paulo: Green and Healthy Environments Project – PAVS: Summary and Lessons Learned
United Nations Environment Programme, City Government of São Paulo, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ)

This publication seeks to provide Green and Healthy Environments Project (PAVS) managers, regional agents, community leaders and policy formulators in the city of São Paulo with the results and recommendations of the application of this approach in the hope that they will provide valuable inputs for designing differentiated, efficient action strategies and continuous improvements to each area in which it is used.

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GEO, Summaries
Global Outlook for Ice and Snow: Highlights
United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Environment Programme

Ice and snow are important components of the Earth’s climate system and are particularly sensitive to global warming. Over the last few decades the amount of ice and snow, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, has decreased substantially, mainly due to human-made global warming. Changes in the volumes and extents of ice and snow have both global and local impacts on climate, ecosystems and human well-being. Snow and the various forms of ice play different roles within the climate system. The two continental ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland actively influence the global climate over time scales of millennia to millions of years, but may also have more rapid effects on, for example, sea level. Snow and sea ice, with their large areas but relatively small volumes, are connected to key interactions and feedbacks at global scales, including solar reflectivity and ocean circulation. Perennially frozen ground (permafrost) influences soil water content and vegetation over continental scale northern regions and is one of the cryosphere components most sensitive to atmospheric warming trends. As permafrost warms, organic material stored in permafrost may release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and increase the rate of global warming. Glaciers and ice caps, as well as river and lake ice, with their smaller areas and volumes, react relatively quickly to climate effects, influencing ecosystems and human activities on a local scale. They are good indicators of climate change

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