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Reports and Books
Lithuania Environment and health performance review
World Health Organization

This report aims to convey a clear picture of the current environmental and health situation in Lithuania. It evaluates the strong and weak points of the environmental and health status in Lithuania. It also includes recommendations from independent experts.


Download: English
2009
Reports and Books
ILAC Cuba
United Nations Environment Programme (PNUMA), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología y Medio Ambiente, Cuba, Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas

Este informe se elaboró con el objetivo de divulgar el progreso alcanzado por Cuba, respecto a los compromisos asumidos en la Conferencia de Río de Janeiro en 1992 y en Johannesburgo en el año 2002, con la adopción de indicadores nacionales y regionales, acordes con las características sociales, económicas, ambientales y políticas del país.


Download: Spanish
2009
Reports and Books
Relatório Final Consultoria Nacional de Cabo Verde
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, CPLP, Ministério do Ambiente Desenvolvimento Rural e Recursos Marinhos

A estrutura do Relatório Nacional foi baseada no historial da implementação da UNCCD em Cabo Verde, integrando a problemática da Gestão Sustentável das Terras, e apresenta diferentes temáticas, nomeadamente: O Quadro Institucional e Legislativo relevante, os Actores chaves, as necessidades de reforço de capacidades, os domínios de intervenção relevantes, os arranjos institucionais pertinentes. A degradação das terras e o avanço da desertificação representam um risco real e significativo para as populações nos países da CPLP, incluindo Cabo Verde, as quais enfrentam a ameaça da desertificação com diferentes níveis de intensidade e incidência territorial. Da mesma forma, os países apresentam em diferentes estágios de implementação da UNCCD, reflexos das suas dificuldades em termos de capacidades, estratégias e recursos financeiros para o envolvimento dos diferentes intervenientes. Os Relatórios Nacionais sobre a situação da Desertificação destacam uma sequência de riscos e situações de vulnerabilidades, seguidos de impactos socioeconómicos e estratégias de Adaptação. A análise aponta as possíveis estratégias de adaptação e busca de soluções em Cabo Verde. No contexto da Desertificação e Degradação das Terras, a aptidão dos solos tem uma importância determinante na Gestão Sustentável das Terras. A Identificação do tipo de uso actual das terras deverá ser feita de acordo com as prioridades de intervenção quanto a aptidão dos solos (Agricultura, Biodiversidade, etc…). A delimitação das terras facilita a implementação de políticas e programas de desenvolvimento sustentável. Esse processo tem vindo a tomar corpo em Cabo Verde através do Programa das Áreas Protegidas Terrestres e Marinhas, o que significa um primeiro passo para a implementação de um Programa Nacional de Gestão Sustentável das Terras. O contexto político caracteriza-se por uma evolução positiva a nível de tomada de consciência sobre a sustentabilidade ambiental. Cabo Verde dispõe de um quadro normativo, amplo e abrangente no Sector do Ambiente. No entanto, as leis e seus regulamentos são acentuadamente complexos, com um elevado grau de tecnicidade, o que os torna de difícil entendimento para grande parte da comunidade que chega a ter acesso a um ou outro instrumento legal de protecção do ambiente e da natureza.


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2009
Reports and Books
Marine Litter in the Baltic Sea Region: Assessment and priorities for response
United Nations Environment Programme

HELCOM marine litter project is the first effort in the region to look into the scale of the problem, the availability of information and the actions needed in the Baltic Sea area. Lack of comparable and reliable data is a major gap in marine litter issues in the Baltic Sea. There is dispersed information collected with different practices, the practice depending on the reporting organization or authority. Therefore HELCOM has prepared a Recommendation for the harmonization of methods of sampling and reporting the amount and type of marine litter on the beach within the Baltic Sea region, and a survey form for reporting marine litter, in order to get more harmonized data from different initiatives in the future. Amendments to the HELCOM Recommendation 28/1 on Application of the no-special-fee system to shipgenerated wastes in the Baltic Sea area has been prepared by the project to include the litter caught in the fishing nets to the no-special-fee system. Main land-based sources of marine litter indicated by five countries are tourism and recreational use of the coasts. Five countries reported major sea-based sources in the Baltic Sea to be commercial shipping (fishing boats, cargo ships, tankers, passenger ships) and pleasure craft. The importance of a source varies in different areas of the Baltic Sea. The most common type of litter in the Baltic Sea is related to the most common land-based source, tourism and recreation. Other common findings in the Baltic coasts are fishing related litter, wood, food waste, sanitary and sewage-related litter, clothing and rubber. Detached vegetation accumulating on the shore can be a major problem in certain areas. Plastic items are the most common type in many areas. The amount of plastics is a good indicator of marine litter trends according to the data provided by the countries and information found on the literature, since plastics make 30-60% of both litter pieces and litter weight. The amounts reported by the countries and the information provided by NGOs suggest that there is no clear descending or ascending trend in the marine litter found on coasts of the Baltic Sea. The amounts can be substantial in some specific sites near the sources of litter (e.g. shipping routes, rivers, public beaches). The highest amounts in the data from the Baltic Sea were between 700 and 1200 pieces per 100 m of a coast, which is the similar level found on the beaches of the Northern North Sea (Final Report of OSPAR Pilot Project on Monitoring Marine Beach Litter 2007). However, in many cases the average amount of litter found on the coasts varied between 6 and 16 pieces of litter per 100 m of coast. It can be said that littering is not as big problem in the Baltic Sea as in the North Sea area. Yet attention should be paid to the specific points were littering is more extensive and has harmful effects on the environment, or creates a risk or economical losses to the people using or living at the coast.


Download: English
2009