Reports and Books
Compliance-Related Texts and Decisions of Selected Multilateral Environmental Agreements
United Nations Environment Programme

The publication intends to ensure that existing compliance and non-compliance regimes are documented in one source to assist and support any future negotiations on the revision of existing regimes or the creation of new ones.


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2010
Reports and Books
The Greening of Water Law: Managing Freshwater Resources for People and the Environment
United Nations Environment Programme, International Water Law Project

The greening of water law is both a theoretical and practical effort to modernize legal regimes governing the management and allocation of freshwater resources.


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2010

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Reports and Books
Greening Cement Production has a Big Role to Play in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions -UNEP Global Environmental Alert Service (GEAS) - November 2010
United Nations Environment Programme

Next to water, concrete is the second-most consumed substance on earth||on average, each person uses nearly three tonnes a year. Portland cement, the major component of concrete, is used to bind the materials that make up concrete. The concrete industry uses about 1.6 billion tonnes of portland cement and produces some 12 billion tonnes of concrete a year.The industry has a large ecological footprint: it uses significant amounts of natural resources such as limestone and sand, and depending on the variety and process, requires 60-130 kg of fuel oil and 110 kWh of electricity to produce each tonne of cement. In addition, the cement industry is second only to power generation in the production of CO2. Producing one tonne of portland cement releases roughly one tonne of CO2 to the atmosphere, and sometimes much more, and the cement industry accounts for 7-8 per cent of the planets human-produced CO2 emissions. Half of it comes from producing clinker (the incombustible remains of coal combustion), 40 per cent from burning fuel and 10 per cent from electricity use and transportation (Mahasenan and others 2003, WBCSD 2005).


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2010
Reports and Books
Contribution of the thermal infrared band of Landsat-7 ETM+ in the detection of seawater pollution along the Lebanese shoreline
United Nations Environment Programme

The marine environment in Lebanon has been recently affected by land-derived pollution. This problem mostly concerns areas with dense urban activities. While threatening the marine ecosystem, it also affects, as a consequence, the human populations. Along the225 km shoreline, 75 permanent or temporary watercourses discharge polluted and wastewater into the sea, with also numerous sewage outlets and oil spills. These pollution inputs are categorized under four major classes: 1) wastewater inflows||2) river transported sediments and debris||3) thermal inflows||4) chemical and oily fluids. The true areal extent of these pollutions is not well identified yet, which requests a comprehensive and continuous observation of the coastal waters. The thermal bands of satellite images of Landsat-7 ETM+ can be successfully utilized for this purpose. The principle of this identification relies upon thermal discrimination between seawater and polluted water temperatures. This thermal mapping has identified 49 major sources of pollution in the Lebanese marine environment, the nature of which has been checked in the field. Most of them are related to uncontrolled human activities, such as sewage outfall, refineries and factories. These results should provide decision-makers with a sound base for implementing the necessary mitigation policies.


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2010
Reports and Books
Africa water Atlas
United Nations Environment Programme

This Atlas is a visual account of Africa's endowment and use of water resources, revealed through 224 maps and 104 satellite images as well as some 500 graphics and hundreds of compelling photos. However the Atlas is more than a collection of static maps and images accompanied by informative facts and figures: its visual elements vividly illustrate a succinct narrative describing and analyzing Africa's water issues and exemplifying them through the judicious use of case studies. It gathers information about water in Africa and its role in the economy and development, health, food security, transboundary cooperation, capacity building and environmental change into one comprehensive and accessible volume. UNEP undertook the production of this Atlas at the request of the African Ministers' Council on Water (AMCOW) and in cooperation with the African Union, European Union, United States State Department, United States Geological Survey and other collaborators.


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2010

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