Tagged on: Europe

Reports and Books
Global International Waters Assessment: Faroe Plateau, GIWA Regional Assessment 13
United Nations Environment Programme, GEF, University of Kalmar, Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA)

The Faroe Islands are situated on a shelf in the North Atlantic Ocean and surrounded by a number of important ?shing grounds. The climate is strongly a?ected by the North Atlantic Current and frequent passage of cyclones. For a subarctic region, the Faroes enjoy fairly high winter temperature, seldom remaining below zero for any prolonged length of time. All islands are small with very small rivers, and only the surrounding marine waters are of international signi? cance. In the surface, the area is covered by the warm, saline Atlantic waters that ? ow past the Faroes into the Norwegian Sea. Only in the Northernmost part do one ?nd cold, less saline water masses.


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2012
GEO
State of the Environment Report: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina

The purpose of this Report is to give an overview of key data on the state of theenvironment of BiH. The Report presents a comprehensive overview of the state of the environment and trends, pressures and their effect on the environment, initiators of those pressures, as well as existing initiatives for resolution of environmental issues. In addition to evaluation of the complete state of the environment, the Report gives an evaluation of efficiency of the applied environmental protection measures, and identifies key issues for protection and improvement of the state of the environment.


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2012
Policy Brief
Green economy: what do we mean by green economy?
United Nations Environment Programme

Reinvigorated by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), a global discussion and national activities on green economy transitions have regained momentum since 2008. The increase in interest is, among other things, due to our growing understanding of the similarity and interlinkages between many of the recent financial, economic, environmental and social crises. The 2008 global financial crisis focused attention not only on the financial losses, and implications for economies, jobs and housing, but also raised questions as to the fundamental imbalance in our economies. The choice of capital allocation - investment in property, fossil fuels and financial assets, rather than in measures to encourage resource efficiency - has created destructive imbalances. A further common element to all these crises is the focus of decision making on short time horizons and trust in what has often proven to be an incomplete evidence base including a lack of proper accounting, for example as regards the cost of climate change and biodiversity.


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2012
Reports and Books
The UNECE Report On Acheving the Millennium Development Goals in Europe and Central Asia
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

This report documents the degree to which the eight goals based upon eighteen targets are on track to be fulfilled by 2015 in the Pan-European region. The focus of the report is on the former transition economies of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, but it also examines progress in all of the UNECE economies for several goals which still have not been achieved in the advanced economies of Western Europe and North America. Generally the report finds that significant progress was being made in almost every area prior to the global financial crisis of 2008-2009, but the severe downturn during the crisis and sluggish recovery since 2009 has resulted in slower improvement.


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2012
Reports and Books
Health effects of black carbon
World Health Organization

Black carbon is a good indicator of combustion-related air pollution, and was only recently recognized as a short-lived climate-forcer, which contributes to warming the Earth's atmosphere.This report presents the results of a systematic review of evidence of the health effects of black carbon in ambient air. Epidemiological studies provide sufficient evidence of the association of cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality with exposure to black carbon. Toxicological studies suggest that black carbon may operate as a universal carrier of a wide variety of chemicals of varying toxicity to the human body. Although black carbon may not be a major, directly toxic component of fine particulate matter, reducing peoples exposure to particulate matter containing black carbon should reduce its effects on their health, as well as helping to mitigate climate change.This review is of particular interest to environmental health professionals concerned with assessing and reducing the health effects of air pollution, as well as to those who use scientific evidence in support of climate change mitigation policies.


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2012
Serials
Peoples’ Sustainability Treaties for Rio+20 - UNEP Perspectives Issue No. 3
United Nations Environment Programme
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2012
Reports and Books
Caspian Sea State of the Environment Report
Secretariat of the Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea

This State of the Caspian Sea Environment Report should be seen and considered as a first try out and starting point towards the creation of a shared environmental information system promoting and securing data collection, monitoring, analysis, harmonization and public communication in support of full implementation of the Tehran Convention and its protocols. We hope that it will improve the Caspian information base, enhance the quality, accessibility and relevance of data and ultimately, contribute to strengthening the regional environmental governance framework.


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2011
Reports and Books
Vital Caspian Graphics 2: Opportunities, Aspirations and Challenges
Zoï Environment Network, GRID-Arendal

More than five years ago we published the first edition of Vital Caspian Graphics, which impressed readers with its abundance of new material presented in a synthesized and visually appealing format. Our goal that it be read in the streets of Astrakhan and Aktau may, however, have been too ambitious – or visionary – despite the numerous electronic tools that usually increase the circulation of our publications.


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2011
GEO
Arab Environment 4: Green Economy
Arab Forum for Environment and Development (AFED)

Green Economy: Sustainable Transition in a Changing Arab World is the fourth of a series of annual reports on the state of Arab environment, produced by the Arab Forum for Environment and Development (AFED). The first AFED report, published in 2008 under the title Arab Environment: Future Challenges, covered the most pressing environmental issues in the region. The second report, Impact of Climate Change on Arab Countries, was published in 2009 and addressed the vulnerabilities to climate change facing Arab countries. The third report, Water: Sustainable Management of a Scarce Resource, was published in 2010 and covered water issues in the driest region of the world.


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2011
Reports and Books
UNEP emerging issues: global honey bee colony disorder and other threats to insect pollinators
United Nations Environment Programme

This report concludes that currently available global data and knowledge on the decline of pollinators are not sufficiently conclusive to demonstrate that there is a worldwide pollinator and related crop production crisis. Although honey bee hives have globally increased close to 45% during the last 50 years, declines have been reported in several locations, largely in Europe and Northern America. This apparent data discrepancy may be due to interpretations of local declines which may be masked by aggregated regional or global data. During the same 50-year period, agricultural production that is independent from animal pollination has doubled, while agricultural production requiring animal pollination has increased four-fold (reaching 6.1% in 2006). This appears to indicate that global agriculture has become increasingly pollinator dependent over the last 50 years.


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2010