Reports and Books
Greening Cement Production has a Big Role to Play in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions -UNEP Global Environmental Alert Service (GEAS) - November 2010
United Nations Environment Programme

Next to water, concrete is the second-most consumed substance on earth||on average, each person uses nearly three tonnes a year. Portland cement, the major component of concrete, is used to bind the materials that make up concrete. The concrete industry uses about 1.6 billion tonnes of portland cement and produces some 12 billion tonnes of concrete a year.The industry has a large ecological footprint: it uses significant amounts of natural resources such as limestone and sand, and depending on the variety and process, requires 60-130 kg of fuel oil and 110 kWh of electricity to produce each tonne of cement. In addition, the cement industry is second only to power generation in the production of CO2. Producing one tonne of portland cement releases roughly one tonne of CO2 to the atmosphere, and sometimes much more, and the cement industry accounts for 7-8 per cent of the planets human-produced CO2 emissions. Half of it comes from producing clinker (the incombustible remains of coal combustion), 40 per cent from burning fuel and 10 per cent from electricity use and transportation (Mahasenan and others 2003, WBCSD 2005).


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2010
Reports and Books
Sierra Leone Environment, Conflict and Peace-building Assessment
United Nations Environment Programme

The Sierra Leone Environment, Conflict and Peacebuilding Assessment examines how environmental governance and natural resource management will play a vital role in undertaking Sierra Leone's Agenda for Change. Given the role that natural resources played in the civil war, and the remaining environmental impacts of the conflict, addressing these issues in the ongoing peacebuilding process is an important challenge. The assessment examines direct and indirect environmental impacts of the conflict, natural resources-related risks to the peace process, and opportunities to use environmental cooperation for peacebuilding


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2010
Manuals and Guides
Risk and Vulnerability Assessment Methodology Development Project (RiVAMP) - Linking Ecosystems to Risk and Vulnerability Reduction - The Case of Jamaica
United Nations Environment Programme

The Risk and Vulnerability Assessment MethodologyDevelopment Project (RiVAMP) was conceived to develop a methodology that takes into accountenvironmental factors in the analysis of disaster riskand vulnerability. While different types of risk andvulnerability assessments are available, what is newabout RiVAMP is that it recognizes ecosystems andclimate change in the risk assessment process. Thepurpose of RiVAMP is to use evidence-based, scientificand qualitative research to demonstrate therole of ecosystems in disaster risk reduction, and thusenable policymakers to make better-informed decisionsthat support sustainable development throughimproved ecosystems management. Jamaica was selected as the first country for theRiVAMP pilot for several reasons, including: its highvulnerability to tropical cyclones and sea level rise;diverse ecosystems and rich biodiversity which areunder pressure as a result of population growth,economic development and a strong internationaltourism industry||high-level government commitmentto hazard mitigation and climate change adaptation;and strong partners through the University ofthe West Indies and UNEPs Caribbean EnvironmentProgramme (CEP) based in Kingston, Jamaica.


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2010
Reports and Books
Ecosystems and Human Wellbeing: A Manual for Assessment Practitioners
United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (United Nations Environment Programme-WCMC)

Commissioned by the United Nations Secretary General in 2000, and completed in 2005, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), based on the findings of 34 'sub-global' assessments carried out in a diverse set of ecosystems in sites around the world, provides a state-of-the-art appraisal of the condition and trends in the world's ecosystems and the services they provide. The MA presents compelling evidence that underlines the urgency and necessity of restoring, conserving, and sustainably managing our ecosystems. Most important, the assessment shows that, with appropriate actions, it is possible to reverse the degradation of many ecosystem services over the next 50 years. By providing invaluable information to policy makers, the MA seeks to help ensure that the required changes in current policy and practice undertaken will be evidence based and informed by the best available scientific analysis. This manual, Ecosystems and Human Well-being: A Manual for Assessment Practitioners, allows for the wider adoption of the MA conceptual framework and methods. The manual, which contains numerous case studies of best practice, offers a practical guide for undertaking ecosystem assessments and includes tools and approaches that can assess options for better managing ecosystems. This Manual makes the methods of the MA and associated sub-global (local and regional) assessments widely accessible. While the MA is the most comprehensive assessment of ecosystems carried out to date, there are other related assessment processes such as Global Environment Outlook (GEO), Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA), International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD) and World Water Assessment. Lessons learned from these assessments supplement the best practice of ecosystem assessment identified through the MA. The publication of this Manual aims to encourage more assessments at scales which are relevant to policy and decision makers.


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2010
Reports and Books
Achieving the Millennium Development Goals with Equality in Latin America and the Caribbean: Progress and Challenges
United Nations

This summary sets out the main findings of a review of the countries’ progress towards achievement of the Millennium Development Goals contained in the 2010 inter-agency regional report on the Goals in Latin America and the Caribbean. The main policy messages, analyses and conclusions included in the report, which was coordinated by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, are the outcome of a joint effort by specialized agencies, programmes and funds of the United Nations operating in the region.


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2010

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