Reports and Books
Tourism and biodiversity: mapping tourism's global footprint
United Nations Environment Programme

Tourism is often described as the world's largest industry on the basis of its contribution to global gross domestic product (GDP), the number of jobs it generates, and the number of clients it serves. The scale of the industry and the rate at which it continues to grow present both opportunities and threats for biodiversity conservation. The publication, jointly developed with Conservation International, illustrates the overlap between tourism development (present and forecasted) and biodiversity hotspots highlighting tourism related threats and opportunities for biodiversity conservation and improved human welfare. To explore the relationship between tourism development, biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction at the global level, a series of maps were produced that plot tourism and socio-economic data against priority biodiversity areas.


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2003
Reports and Books
Case studies on alternatives to methyl bromide, Volume 2: technologies with low environmental impact in countries with economies in transition
United Nations Environment Programme

UNEP has compiled this document of six case studies to encourage farmers, extension agencies, researchers, policy-makers and other stakeholders from the CEIT region to examine environmentally sustainable techniques, specifically suited to the unique climatic, cultural and socio-economic conditions found in these countries, when considering the replacement of methyl bromide. Included are chemical and non-chemical alternatives, across the spectrum of methyl bromide uses in CEITs, as well as analyses of associated costs and the applicability of technologies to the region. With financing from the Global Environment Facility, as well as additional support from Environment Canada, this document received key input from members of the Methyl Bromide Technical Options Committee (MBTOC), and regional CEIT methyl bromide experts.


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2003

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Reports and Books
From ocean to aquarium: the global trade in marine ornamental species
Colette W., Michelle, T., Edmund G., Tries, R.

UNEP-WCMC Biodiversity Series No. 17. With the total value of the marine ornamental trade amounting to as much as US$330 million a year and an estimated 2 million people worldwide keeping marine aquaria, the industry plays a significant role in both source and destination countries. Tropical coral reefs are the most important source of specimens for the aquarium trade - mainly fish, including seahorses, the corals themselves, and others such as anemones, starfish and giant clams. Almost all marine aquarium species are taken from the wild, with few examples of captive breeding. From Ocean to Aquarium presents a brief overview of how the trade functions and the impacts it has on coral reefs, as well as on the human communities that derive an income from trading in marine ornamental species. From Ocean to Aquarium is the product of a collaboration between UNEP-WCMC, the Marine Aquarium Council (MAC) and the industry itself. It is the first of its kind, examining issues surrounding the trade of live coral, fish and invertebrates for the marine aquarium trade, and presenting a comprehensive and independent synthesis of related information.


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2003

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Reports and Books, Manuals and Guides
Sea water desalination in the Mediterranean assessment and guidelines
United Nations Environment Programme

The need for desalting seawater is becoming more and more pressing in many parts of the world. During the period from 1950 to 1990 the worldwide consumption of water was tripled, while the population grew by 2.3 billion people. In the Mediterranean, the present and future water needs are really increasing. It is estimated that by the year 2010 water demands will increase by 32% at least for the southern and eastern countries. There is no doubt that the above water needs can be covered and satisfied if only non-conventional resources of water are utilized, like water- recycling and desalination. Desalination has for a long time been a major source of water in parts of the Mediterranean. Desalination plants exist in places that have hot climates, relatively low and unpredictable rainfall and where conventional water resources are unable to meet peak tourist demands. Seawater desalination by Mediterranean countries is a steadily growing industry. This practically unlimited resource of water requires energy consumption and results to environmental impacts. These impacts are generated mainly from the concentrate (brine) produced during the desalination, but also from the discharges of chemicals used in the desalination processes. Although the number of scientific publications dealing with the issue is limited, the discharge of concentrate into the sea requires particular attention and scientific assessment of possible impacts on the marine environment. There is no doubt that Mediterranean countries, which use desalination to cover their freshwater needs, should apply appropriate guidelines or procedures for the disposal of brine according to the LBS and Dumping Protocol. As a result, this document was prepared to offer a basis for discussion aiming at identifying a common management approach in line with the Barcelona Convention and its Protocols.


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2003
Reports and Books
Afghanistan Wakhan Mission: Technical report
United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

The mission was commissioned by the United National Environmental Programme (UNEP), as one of five missions visiting a selection of environmentally important locations in Afghanistan with purpose of making an initial post-conflict environmental assessment. Emphasis was placed on visiting the Big Pamir because in the late 1970s that section of the Wakhan had been designated as a National Park and an area of special interest and conservation management, due to its unique wildlife, in particular the famous Marco Polo wild sheep (Ovis ammon polii).


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2003