Assessment report
Integrating Environment in Post-conflict Needs Assessments: UNEP Guidance Note
United Nations Environment Programme

the purpose of this guidance note is to i) Advise PCNA practitioners on how to ensure knowledge of environment issues is available and used during the PCNA process; ii) Facilitate the identification of priority interventions that may be considered for inclusion in the TRF; and iii) Give guidance on core indicators relevant for most any context, as well as suggested indicators for specific contexts to enable monitoring and evaluation of environmental issues.

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Auditing the Implementation of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs): A Primer for Auditors
United Nations Environment Programme, INTOSAI-WGEA

This publication underscores that environmental audits, such as those conducted by Supreme Audit Institutions (SAI) can and do play a crucial and vital role with regard to the implementation of MEAs and can evaluate whether the tools that their governments use to manage and protect the environment and implement MEAs have produced the intended results.

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Trade and Green Economy: A Handbook
United Nations Environment Programme, International Institute for Sustainable Development

This handbook covers a wealth of new information, including the emergence of the green economy concept, the latest WTO jurisprudence, and increasingly important legal and policy linkages between trade and green economy policies and practices in the changing dynamics of
international trade with the emergence of the BRIC economies and the exponential rise in preferential trade agreements.

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Global Adaptation Network Brochure
United Nations Environment Programme

Adaptation is a multidisciplinary undertaking, requiring collaboration from diverse actors operating in different sectors and this makes it critical to share information. While much knowledge exists for successful adaptation, it is often fragmented and not always accessible to diverse stakeholders. The mobilization and sharing of knowledge and experiences is therefore, critical for informing adaptation decision-making, planning and practice. The Global Adaptation Network (GAN) aims to address this need.

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Book chapter
Global Outlook for Ice and Snow: Chapter 8 - River and lake ice
United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Environment Programme

Floating freshwater ice is a key component of cold-regions
river and lake systems. Ice creates and controls unique
aquatic habitats and related biological productivity and
diversity. It also poses major challenges (for example,
flood threats) and opportunities (for example, transportation)
for communities. Changes in freshwater-ice cover
have largely mirrored trends in air temperature, with
large regions of the Northern Hemisphere experiencing
reductions in ice-cover duration characterized by earlier
spring break ups and, to a lesser degree, later autumn
freeze ups, particularly over the last 50 years. Although
more dramatic changes in the timing and duration of the
ice season are projected for the future, our understanding
of how climate has affected or will alter the more
important freshwater-ice processes (such as ice-cover
composition, thickness and break-up dynamic,) remains
poor. Improving our knowledge of these climate-ice relationships
is the key to being able to properly adapt to, or
even mitigate, future environmental change

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Book chapter
Global Outlook for Ice and Snow: Chapter 7 - Frozen ground
United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Environment Programme

Permafrost temperatures have increased during the last
20–30 years in almost all areas of the Northern Hemisphere.
An increase in the depth of the active layer above
the permafrost, which thaws in the summer, is less certain.
Further increases in air temperatures predicted
for the 21st century are projected to initiate widespread
permafrost thawing in the subarctic and in mountain
regions in both hemispheres. Widespread thawing of
permafrost will speed up the decomposition of organic
material previously held frozen in permafrost, emitting
large amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
Thawing of ice-rich permafrost may also have serious
consequences for ecosystems and infrastructure, and in
mountain regions, may reduce the stability of slopes and
increase the danger of rock falls and landslides

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Book chapter
Global Outlook for Ice and Snow: Chapter 5 - Ice in the sea
United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Environment Programme

Sea ice plays a key role for climate and is important as habitat
and for human activities and economies. Observations
show and models indicate that climate and sea-ice regimes
are changing. Sea-ice extent in the Arctic decreased substantially
during the last 30 years; Antarctic sea ice is decreasing
in some areas, but overall it has shown a slight
increase during this period. Climate models project further
decreases in sea-ice extent in the Arctic during this century
and comparable decreases in Antarctic sea-ice extent. There
are uncertainties attached to the rate at which these changes
will occur, and there is a risk of tipping points being crossed
and abrupt reductions in sea ice occurring. To reduce these
uncertainties, more large-scale continuous observations
are needed, especially of ice and snow thickness.

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Book chapter
Global Outlook for Ice and Snow: Chapter 4 - Snow
United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Environment Programme

Snow exerts a huge influence on climate, through its
high reflectivity, insulating properties, and cooling of
the atmosphere, and on surface hydrology, through its
effects on water resources in many parts of the world.
Mean monthly snow-cover extent in the Northern Hemisphere
has decreased at a rate of 1.3 per cent per decade
during the last 40 years, with greatest losses in the
spring and summer months. Climate models project
significant decreases in snow cover by the end of this
century, with reductions of 60 to 80 per cent in snow water
equivalent (depth of water resulting from snow melt)
in most mid-latitude regions. Increases are projected for
the Canadian Arctic and Siberia. Higher temperatures
and rises in snow line are projected for many mountain
regions. Changes in snow cover, such as the formation
of ice layers in snow due to increased frequency of snow
thaw, have widespread impacts as snow is an important
ecological factor. Snow-cover changes also have impacts
on human well-being and economic activities, including
water resources, agriculture, animal husbandry, transportation
and winter recreation such as skiing.

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Book chapter
Global Outlook for Ice and Snow: Chapter 1 - Highlights
United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Environment Programme

Ice and snow are important components of the Earth’s
climate system and are particularly sensitive to global
warming. Over the last few decades the amount of ice
and snow, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, has
decreased substantially, mainly due to human-made global
warming. Changes in the volumes and extents of ice
and snow have both global and local impacts on climate,
ecosystems and human well-being.

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Le Protocole de Montréal et la Santé Humaine: Comment une action mondiale nous protège des ravages du rayonnement ultraviolet
United Nations Environment Programme

Ce livret, tout en présentant un condensé des connaissances actuelles sur les effets des variations du rayonnement UV sur la santé humaine, offre
aussi un panorama de ce que le monde aurait pu être si nous n’étions pas arrivés à contrôler les substances qui appauvrissent la couche d’ozone. Il y aurait eu un effondrement de l’ozone stratosphérique vers le milieu du 21ème siècle, avec pour résultat une augmentation dramatique du rayonnement UV partout dans le monde, des pôles jusqu’aux tropiques.

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