Reports and Books
Sand and Sustainability: Finding New Solutions for Environmental Governance of Global Sand Resources
United Nations Environment Programme

Sand and gravels are the unrecognised foundational material of our economies. They are mined the world over, with aggregates accounting for the largest volume of solid material extracted globally (Peduzzi, 2014; Beiser, 2018). At the same time, these materials cannot be produced from our terrestrial, riverine and marine environments in quantities needed to meet demand from a world of 10 billion people without effective policy, planning, regulation and management. Such actions remain largely unaddressed by decision makers in public or private sectors. It is time to challenge the paradigm of infinite sand resources through constructive dialogue and solution-finding. This report aims to be the starting point from which a productive global conversation on sand extraction can begin.


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Reports and Books
State of the Marine Environment in Antarctica - UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 129
United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

The better understanding of the changing problems facing the marine environment is a continuing goal of UNEP's ocean programme, as it provides the necessary scientific background for shaping UNEP's policy towards the protection of the oceans.

The main sources of factual information used in the assessment of the state of the marine environment are data published in open scientific literature, data available in various reports published as "grey literature" and data generated through numerous research and monitoring programmes sponsored by UNEP and other organizations.


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Reports and Books
The Ecosystems of Small Islands in the South West Pacific (The Sixth Expedition of the SS "Callisto") - UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 151. SPREP Reports and Studies No. 63
Pernetta, J. C., Manner, H. I
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Reports and Books
Training Workshop on Environmental Education and Resource Management in African Tertiary-Level Institutions: Final Report
United Nations Environment Programme

Major environmental problems in Africa result from the deterioration of both the natural and rural resources base. Deforestation, desertification and the underlying drought situation, together pose the greatest threat to the environment in Africa whilst industrial development coupled with urbanisation pose the second major threat to the African environment.


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Chapters and Articles
The Stockholm Declaration on the Human Environment
Sohn, Louis B.

The Conference on the Human Environment, held at Stockholm from June 5 to 16, 1972, was in many respects the most successful inter-national conference held in recent years. In a two-week period it adopted not only a basic Declaration and a detailed resolution on institutional and financial arrangements, but also 109 recommendations comprising an ambitious action plan. The Declaration contains a set of "common principles to inspire and guide the peoples of the world in the preservation and enhancement of the human environment." The resolution on institutional and financial arrangements proposed the establishment by the General Assembly of the United Nations of: an intergovernmental Governing Council for Environmental Pro-grammes, to provide general policy guidance for the direction and coordination of environmental programs; an Environment Secretariat headed by an Executive Director; an Environment Fund, to provide additional financing for environmental programs; and an interagency Environmental Co-ordinating Board for the purpose of ensuring cooperation and coordination among all bodies concerned in the implementation of environmental programs.


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Reports and Books
The Nairobi Declaration on Climatic Change - International Conference on Global Warming and Climatic Change: African Perspectives
African Centre for Technology Studies, Woods Hole Research Center

The International Conference on Global Warming and Climatic Change: African Perspectives was held at the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya (May 2-4, 1990) to examine the possible impacts of global climatic change on the ecosystems, economies and infrastructure of African countries. Participants from the continent and other researchers from around the world presented the most recent data, models and case studies on the anticipated global warming and its impacts. The Declaration is addressed particularly to African policy-makers and researchers as well as to governments and interested parties globally. The Declaration calls for immediate action on policies to support research, review of planned development, strengthening of on- going environmental conservation measures and cancellation of international debt as well as revision of trade policies to enable African countries to apply their resources to adjusting to climatic change.


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Reports and Books
Regional Seas Programme : Legislative Authority - UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No.17 Rev. 1
United Nations Environment Programme

This document is a compilation containing the basic texts adopted by the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, June 1972) as well as the resolutions and decisions adopted by the General Assently of the United Nations and by the Governing Council of UNEP. These resolutions and decisions provide the legislative authority for UNEPs oceans-related progranrne, the Regional Seas Prograinne specifically.


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Reports and Books
Risk Assessment on Illegal Trade in HCFCs
United Nations Environment Programme, Environmental Investigation Agency, European Commission

This report provides a summary of recent cases of illegal trade and the policy measures in place to combat HCFC smuggling. By considering market conditions for HCFCs and drawing parallels with the context and methods used by smugglers which led to chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) smuggling, the report provides an analysis of the risks of HCFC smuggling becoming entrenched and makes recommendations on how this illegal trade can be prevented.


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Reports and Books
Water Quality Monitoring, Assessment & Management: A Guide to the Modular GEMS/ Water Training Programme
United Nations Environment Programme

Due to the success of this programme and the high demands expressed by network participants, it was agreed by the GEMS/WATER Steering Committee to develop a comprehensive guide which compiles all training course opportunities currently available from collaborating centres in the global network.
The aim of this guide is to provide water resources management authorities, water surveillance agencies, regulatory bodies and external support agencies with detailed information about readily available training courses. Course descriptions cover aims, target audiences, course contents and the more practical organizational details. The guide also provides examples on how a series of courses can be packaged into a modular training programme for a specific target group of trainees.


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Reports and Books
Regional Seas Programme in Latin America and Wider Caribbean - UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 22 Rev. 2
United Nations Environment Programme

Since the Regional Seas Programme was initiated in 1974, action plans for the Mediterranean, Kuwait Action Plan Region, West and Central Africa, Wider Caribbean, East Asian Seas, South-East Pacific, South Pacific, and Red Sea and Gulf of Aden have been adopted, action plans in the East African and South Asian Seas regions are being developed, while the development of the action plan for the South-West Atlantic is under consideration (figure 1). UNEP was designated as the secretariat
(co-ordinator) for four of the adopted action plans and of the legal agreements associated with these action plans, and was entrusted with the management of related regional trust funds. In this document the status of development of the three regional action plans revelant to Latin America and the Wider Caribbean region will be summarized.


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