Manuals, Guides and Toolkits, Reports and Books
Global Judicial Handbook on Environmental Constitutionalism - 3rd Edition
United Nations Environment Programme

This Handbook is designed to provide jurists with an overview of environmental constitutionalism: we address what it is, the peculiar practical and procedural issues it presents, and how courts from around the globe have engaged it. Environmental constitutionalism is a relatively recent phenomenon at the confluence of constitutional law, international law, human rights, and environmental law. It embodies the recognition that the environment is a proper subject for protection in constitutional texts and for vindication by constitutional courts worldwide. Environmental constitutionalism offers one way to engage environmental challenges that fall beyond the grasp of other legal constructs.


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Reports and Books
The Study of Contamination of Food Products by some Mycotoxins in the Georgian SSR
United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

The task of protection of food against a potentially extensive contamination with toxic metabolites of microscopic mould fungi - mycotoxins - is one of the problems of protection of the human internal environment.

Mycotoxins are highly toxic metabolites of microscopic fungi and they are widely spread in nature. At present more than 240 strains of different species of mould fungi are known and these produce approximately 100 toxic compounds. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential hazard of mycotoxins for the health of man and animals.


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Reports and Books
Toxigenic Penicillia Occurring in Feeds and Foods with Special Reference to Mould-Fermented Sausage and Cheese
United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Peniclilia frequently occur In feeds and foods. Many Isolates of this genus we toxigenlc and they Impair the health of domestic animals, produce residues In organs and meat due to carry over, form mycotoxins in mouldy meat products and may be hazardous for mould-fermented foods. Observations gathered In the West German Federal Centre for Meat Research are summarised.


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Reports and Books
Toxin-Forming Imperfect Fungi And Their Cultivation In The Laboratory
United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Numerous data on the contamination of agricultural food material, food stuffs, and fodders with spores of various, microscopic fungi can be found in the literature. Improper storage of these substrates, which most frequently occurs during the harvesting of vast masses of grain with high humidity', may cause the intense development of many species of mould fungi. In a number of cases, this is accompanied not only by changes in the chemical composition of the contaminated substrate and its pro-ceasing properties, but also by the accumulation of the toxic metabolytes (mycotoxins) of a number of fungi.


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Reports and Books
Toxinogenic Penicillia occurring in Feeds and Foods
United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Penicillia frequently occur in feeds and foods. Many isolates of this genus are Toxinogenic and thus 1. impair the health of domestic animals, 2. cause residues in organs and meat due to carry over, 3. Synthesis mycotoxins in moldy meat products, and 4. may be hazardous for mold-fermented foods. The results of our laboratory gathered in these respects are summarized in this contribution.


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Reports and Books
Ways of Reducing Food and Feed Contamination with Mycotoxins
United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Vegetable products are usually contaminated with mycotoxins occurs, during the vegetation period when the toxins begin to grow on plants, during products storage and, occasionally during the processing of grain and oil-bearing crops.

A set of techniques is used in each of these stages to preclude or limit the formation of microorganisms and, hence, to reduce the danger of mycotoxins accumulation. Special preventive measures have been developed and adopted in the past few years. These include the treatment of humid grain with ammonia or low molecular fatty acids. Besides, there is a possibility of natural decomposition of some mycotoxins during storage.


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Reports and Books
The Systematics and Biological Properties of Toxinogenic Fungi
United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Fungi represent a vast heterogeneous group of organisms, differing in their morphology, methods of reproduction, cycles of development, ways of nutrition and habitats.
At present many mycologists and biologists support the con-. caption concerning the three classes of multiracemose organisms - plants, animals and fungi, according to which the fungi are given the status of a separate kingdom in the organic world, on a par with the plants and the animals.


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Reports and Books
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography in the Analysis of Mycotoxins
United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

The continuous improvement of adsorbents' quality and performance of the chromatographic equipment for their maxima] adaptation to the requirements of the column chromatography theory resulted in the creation of a qualitatively new analytic technique - high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). During the last 10-12 years HPLC has been broadly used in the analysis of mycotoxins in foodstuffs and fodder. Compared with thin-layer chromatography (TLC), which is commonly used in routine mycotoxin analysis, HPLC is characterized by such advantages as adequate partition from interfering accompanying substances in highly efficient chromatographic columns, fast rate of partition, quantitation reproducibility of separated substances by means of flow detectors, possibility of injecting rather large sample volumes into a chromatographic system and simplicity of automation in a considerable number of analytic series. HPLC has a drawback: higher cost of basic equipment and higher requirements to the qualification of analysts.


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Reports and Books
Grain Sampling Methods for Mycotoxins
United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Grain is transported to and from grain collecting centres and elevators in lorries, railroad wagons, marine or river vessels. Grain is stored in individual lots. The LOT usually means any amount of grain of uniform quality (judged on the basis of organoleptic properties) intended for simultaneous reception, unloading or storage in one silo bin or warehouse. It is the grain lot that usually represents the object of study. During its assessment, however, one has to take into account a major property of grain mass - its heterogeneity.


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Reports and Books
Gas-Liquid Chromatography and its Application in the Analysis of Mycotoxins
United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Gas-liquid chromatography (GIC) is one of most effective and widely applied methods for the separation, identification and quantitative analysis of complex multi-component mixtures. It has the advantages of high separation efficiency, considerably exceeding the possibilities of liquid chromatography (thin-layer chromatography (TIC), high-resolution liquid chromatography (HRIC)); good reproducibility of GIC chromatography parameters, facilitating identification and acquisition of precise quantitative results; high sensitivity; universality of the applied detection techniques, making it possible to identify with a low detection limit all classes of organic compounds; lasting quality of analytic columns (compared to that of BRIG) used in GIC for separation (up to two years of continuous work).


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