Global environment outlook (GEO), Newsletters
GEO Matters - February 2019
United Nations Environment Programme

A selected group of authors drafting the GEO for youth report met at the United Nations Offices in, Nairobi to
advance the drafts reports to a second order draft state.
The objective of the meeting was to;
• Complete the Second Order Draft of the four chapters
• Identify experts to interview for the sustainable jobs of the future chapter
• Assess the results of the questionnaire
• Strategize on a way forward


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Global environment outlook (GEO), Newsletters
GEO Matters - March 2019
United Nations Environment Programme

The sixth edition of the Global Environment Outlook which is the most comprehensive and rigorous assessment on the state of the environment completed by the United Nations in the last five years was published on 13 March 2019 during the fourth United Nations Environment Assembly. The launch of the report included a series of interactive dialogues and presentations


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Global environment outlook (GEO), Newsletters
GEO Matters - April 2019
United Nations Environment Programme

The second Global Session of the UN Science-Policy-Business Forum on the Environment convened from 9-10 March 2019 at the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) headquarters, Nairobi, Kenya, on the eve of the fourth session of the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA-4). The Forum focused on the nexus of science, innovation and entrepreneurship for the environment. On 9 March 2019, the Global Environment Outlook (GEO) team hosted three panel discussions on Environmental and Health Impacts of Waste, Energy and Food Systems using messages drawn from the sixth Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6).


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Reports and Books
Mycotoxins: Historical Background and Present-Day Notions Centre - International Training Course : Training Activities on Food Contamination Control and Monitoring with Special Reference to Mycotoxins
United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Mycotoxins secondary metabolites of microscopic fungi- are classed with the most dangerous contaminants of food products and fodders which occur in natural conditions. Mycotoxins are distinguished by high toxicity and many of them possess mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic properties. At present we know more than 250 species of various microscopic (mould) fungi which produce approximately 100 metabolites of varying toxicity giving rise to alimentary toxicity of man and farm animals. The facts accumulated in recent decades land themselves to a conclusion about universal spread both of mycotoxin producers and of toxins proper. There are all grounds to believe that the number of isolated mycotoxins will continue to grow with further study of the role of toxin-forming microscopic fungi in alimentary toxicoses of man and animals of unestablished etiology.


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Reports and Books
Mycotoxins: Immunity, Immunologic Methods of Study - International Training Course: Training Activities on Food Contamination Control and Monitoring with Special Reference to Mycotoxins
United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Mycotoxins is the name given to the toxic metabolites of certain species of microscopic fungi. The danger of mycotoxins is connected with the fact that the microscopic fungi producing them are very widespread in nature and under certain conditions can affect fodder and food product.


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Reports and Books
Problems of Mycotoxins in Africa - International Training Course: Training Activities on Food Contamination Control and Monitoring with Special Reference to Mycotoxins
United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Mycotoxin is a term reserved for a group of highly toxic substances produced as secondary metabolites several fungi. These substances often differ greatly in structure, chemical and physical properties but possess the capability of producing pathological and other undesirable conditions in man and animal. Such conditions are normally referred to as mycotoxicoses.


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Reports and Books
Mycotoxins as Natural Contaminants and Feeds - International Training Course : Training Activities on Food Contamination Control and Monitoring with Special Reference to Mycotoxins
United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Mycotoxins are natural contaminants of food products and feeds. It has become absolutely clear, since the discovery of aflatoxins, that under natural conditions it is not only peanuts but many other vegetable substrates are a favorable media for the growth of microscopic fungi and the development of aflatoxins. There is convincing proof about the possibility of transmitting aflatoxins to farm animals tissues provided there is a high aflatoxin content in feeds.


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Reports and Books
Preliminary Tests for Detecting the Fungi-Infected Grain: Screening as a Method of Aflatoxin Detection by Mini-Columns - International Training Course: Training Activities on Food Contamination Control and Monitoring with Special Reference to Mycotoxins
United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
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Reports and Books
Principles of Mycotoxins Formation in Grain and Feeds under Natural Conditions - International Training Course: Training Activities on Food Contamination Control and Monitoring with Special Reference to Mycotoxins
United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

The development of toxicogenic fungi and the formation of mycotoxins on vegetable products under natural conditions is governed by a number of external and internal factors. These may be subdivided into three groups: physical, chemical and biological. Jarvis B. (1971) has summarized these factors in relation to aflatoxins; however, the same factors also determine the biosynthesis of most known mycotoxins.


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Reports and Books
The Influence of Food Processing Practices on the Content of Mycotoxins in Food Products
United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Contamination of vegetable raw materials such as oil hearing crops, corn, rice, teat, and barley with mycotoxins, i.e. toxic and carcinogenic metabolites of microscopic fungi was reported from many countries. According to national legislations the content aflatoxins B must not exceed 2.5-20 ug/kg.

Most countries, however, have not yet arranged a total supervision of contamination of grain and oil-bearing crops with aflatoxins and other mycotoxins. More often than not there is only a selective supervision of grain batches which have external signs of the development of microscopic fungi, or which have been stored in unfavorable conditions.


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