Chapters and Articles
Nanomaterials: Applying the Precautionary Principle - Frontiers 2017: Emerging Issues of Environmental Concern
McGlade, Jacqueline

The recent advances in nanotechnology and nanoscience have introduced nanoscale materials with emergent physical and chemical properties to transform the world.


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2017
Chapters and Articles
Antimicrobial Resistance: Investigating the Environmental Dimension - Frontiers 2017: Emerging Issues of Environmental Concern
Gaze, William, Depledge, Michael

Antibiotic pharmaceuticals are used around the world to treat and prevent bacterial infections in humans, animals and even plants. They have also been used widely as growth promoters to increase meat production, although this practice was banned in the European Union in 2006. While the misuse of antibiotics in medical and agricultural practices has been linked to increasing resistance, the role of the natural environment in the emergence and spread of resistance has received relatively little attention.


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2017
Chapters and Articles
Methodology of national and global studies - The Emissions Gap Report 2017 Chapter 3 Appendix A
United Nations Environment Programme

This chapter provides an update on the mitigation challenge associated with the global temperature goal of the Paris Agreement, and the estimated global emission levels under various assumptions regarding the implementation of current policies and NDCs or INDCs (hereafter referred to as NDCs, unless specifically mentioned in relation to a country that has not ratified the Paris Agreement).


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2017
Chapters and Articles
Marine Protected Areas: Securing Benefits for Sustainable Development - Frontiers 2017: Emerging Issues of Environmental Concern
Jones, Peter, Murray, Ruth, Vestergaard, Ole

Marine protected areas offer one of the best options for maintaining or returning ocean and coastal ecosystems to healthy conditions, particularly when developed as part of a wider management system. Ecological benefits come from protecting species, habitats and ecosystem functions. Social benefits come from engaging stakeholders in the planning and the fair sharing of benefits. Economic benefits come from ensuring the long-term sustainable use of natural resources and tourism incomes. The combined impact could support many of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including reducing poverty, improving food security and tackling impacts of climate change.


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2017
Chapters and Articles
Sand and Dust Storms: Subduing a Global Phenomenon - Frontiers 2017: Emerging Issues of Environmental Concern
Shepherd, Gemma

Sand and dust storms are inter-connected with a range of environmental and development issues that extend across national, regional, and continental bounds. Anthropogenic climate change will further exacerbate decades of unsustainable land and water resource management in regions that generate sand and dust storms. This threat can be diminished by quick and effective action.


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2017
Chapters and Articles
Environmental Displacement: Human mobility in the Anthropocene - Frontiers 2017: Emerging Issues of Environmental Concern
Brown, Oli

The interlacing trends of climate change, population growth, rising consumption, large infrastructure projects and environmental degradation may lead to greater numbers of people displaced in future. This is particularly likely if these trends occur in the context of inadequate responses from governments and the international community to build the resilience of countries and communities to these changes. The most commonly cited figure is that there could be as many as 200 million people displaced for environmental reasons by 2050.


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2017
Chapters and Articles
Solar Solutions: Bridging the Energy Gap for Off-Grid Settlements - Frontiers 2017: Emerging Issues of Environmental Concern
Lemaire, Xavier, Kerr, Daniel

Recent years have seen an increased popularity of small distributed solar energy systems in low-income communities in Africa and Asia, where at least 95 per cent of the off-grid population reside. Advances in LED technology resulted in improved efficiency—more light emitted per electrical input. Highly polluting lead acid batteries are becoming obsolete, replaced by higher performance lithium ion batteries that provide higher energy storage capacity, longer service life, and faster and more efficient recharging.


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Chapters and Articles
Energy Profile: Ethiopia
United Nations Environment Programme

Total production of electricity in 2015 was 1,708 ktoe with 82.7 per cent produced from hydro, 2.8 per cent from fossil fuels and 2.7 per cent from geothermal sources. Final consumption of electricity was 654 ktoe in the same year (AFREC, 2015).


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Chapters and Articles
Energy Profile: Zimbabwe
United Nations Environment Programme

Total production of electricity in 2015 was 762 ktoe, with 32.9 per cent from fossil fuels and 66.2 per cent from hydro sources. The final consumption of electricity in 2015 was 761 ktoe.


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