GEO
Informe del Estado del Ambiente en Nicaragua - GEO Nicaragua
Ministerio del Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (MARENA), Nicaragua

El Segundo Informe del Estado del Ambiente en Nicaragua (GEO 2003), ha sido un esfuerzo interinstitucional llevado a cabo por un período de aproximadamente 18 meses||como parte de los esfuerzos de levantamiento y sistematización de información que realiza el Ministerio del Ambiente y los Recursos Naturales (MARENA) a través del Sistema Nacional de Información Ambiental (SINIA). MARENA ha puesto en marcha la operatividad del SINIA como un sistema de país, que permita evaluar y medir de forma sistemática la disponibilidad, uso, estado, impactos y tendencias de los recursos naturales y la calidad ambiental, bajo un proceso de participación y alianza multisectorial que permita mejorar la disponibilidad, análisis y síntesis sobre la Información y gestión ambiental multisectorial y transferir a los decisores del desarrollo socioeconómico nacional, regional y municipal las capacidades, potencialidades, limitaciones, problemas y soluciones en el uso y aprovechamiento del uso de la tierra y los recursos naturales en el territorio nacional.


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2003
Reports and Books
Planning, designing and implementing policies to control ozone depleting substances under the Montreal Protocol: a handbook of policy setting at the national level
United Nations Environment Programme

This Handbook provides developing countries with guiding principles and practical advice on planning, designing, implementing and sustaining appropriate and effective policies for complying with the Protocol. This Handbook should be of particular interest to developing countries that are categorised as low-volume consuming countries (LVCs).


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2003
Reports and Books, Manuals and Guides
Sea water desalination in the Mediterranean assessment and guidelines
United Nations Environment Programme

The need for desalting seawater is becoming more and more pressing in many parts of the world. During the period from 1950 to 1990 the worldwide consumption of water was tripled, while the population grew by 2.3 billion people. In the Mediterranean, the present and future water needs are really increasing. It is estimated that by the year 2010 water demands will increase by 32% at least for the southern and eastern countries. There is no doubt that the above water needs can be covered and satisfied if only non-conventional resources of water are utilized, like water- recycling and desalination. Desalination has for a long time been a major source of water in parts of the Mediterranean. Desalination plants exist in places that have hot climates, relatively low and unpredictable rainfall and where conventional water resources are unable to meet peak tourist demands. Seawater desalination by Mediterranean countries is a steadily growing industry. This practically unlimited resource of water requires energy consumption and results to environmental impacts. These impacts are generated mainly from the concentrate (brine) produced during the desalination, but also from the discharges of chemicals used in the desalination processes. Although the number of scientific publications dealing with the issue is limited, the discharge of concentrate into the sea requires particular attention and scientific assessment of possible impacts on the marine environment. There is no doubt that Mediterranean countries, which use desalination to cover their freshwater needs, should apply appropriate guidelines or procedures for the disposal of brine according to the LBS and Dumping Protocol. As a result, this document was prepared to offer a basis for discussion aiming at identifying a common management approach in line with the Barcelona Convention and its Protocols.


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2003
Reports and Books
Global Risk And Vulnerability Index Trends per Year (GRAVITY) Phase IV: Annex to WVR and Multi Risk Integration
United Nations Environment Programme

The purposes of the Disaster Risk Index was to identify whether global data sets could be used for identifying population living in exposed areas and demonstrate the link between socio-economical parameters and vulnerability.


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2003
Reports and Books
Innovative financing to implement multilateral environmental agreements: the case of the Montreal protocol, proceedings of the technical workshop on concessional lending
United Nations Environment Programme

On 22 July 2002 an International workshop was convened under the auspices of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol to exchange views on the objectives and modalities of concessional lending, and to review the experiences in innovative financing related to the implementation of this multilateral environmental agreement. These proceedings include the workshop summary and presentations and papers delivered during the workshop.


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2003
Reports and Books
Groundwater and its susceptibility to degradation: a global assessment of the problem and options for management
United Nations Environment Programme, British Geological Survey (BGS), Belgian Development Cooperation (DGDC), Department for International Development (DFID)

This publication provides an overview of groundwater occurrence and of the main issues affecting its quantity and quality. The publication shows how the resource is used in our cities, in industry and mining, in agriculture and rural water supply||how it sustains many of our wetlands||how the groundwater has become an integral part of billions of people’s lives.


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2003
Reports and Books
2003 Green Korea: Towards the Harmonization of Humans and Nature
Republic of Korea, Ministry of Environment

The Republic of Korea will develop and implement various environmental policies to realize environmental soundness, economic efficiency and social balance. Major Environmental Policies and Activities post 2002 FIFA World Cup


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2003
Reports and Books
Changes in the State of Conservation of Mt. Kenya Forests: 1999-2002
Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), DICE, KFWG, United Nations Environment Programme

In 1999, Kenya Wildlife Service, with support from UNEP, undertook a systematic aerial survey of the forests of Mt. Kenya. The findings of the survey revealed extensive forest destruction across the mountain ecosystem. As a strategic response, Mt. Kenya forests were afforded the enhanced protection status of a National Reserve in July 2000 and placed under the management of Kenya Wildlife Service. This report reviews the changes in the state of conservation of Mt. Kenya since 2000. The objectives of this report in monitoring the changes in Mt. Kenya forests are: - To assess changes in the state of conservation of Mt. Kenya forests since 1999||- To assess the effectiveness of the new management practices put in place on Mt. - To identify emerging or prevalent threats to conservation of the forests||and, - To recommend interventions in support of the conservation of forests.


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2003
Serials
Korea Environmental Policy Bulletin - Volume-Based Waste Fee System
Republic of Korea, Ministry of Environment

In order to reduce waste generation at the source and maximize waste recycling, the Korean government introduced the Volume-Based Waste Fee (VBWF) system in 1995. In Korea, local municipalities have a responsibility to collect, recycle and treat municipal solid waste from household, small business and commercial sectors. Traditionally, all municipalities levied waste fee on each household through property tax or monthly lumpsum fee. Under this fixed-fee system, cost per each residence remained constant regardless of the amount of waste generated, which created a false impression that management services of municipal solid wastes are free of charge. Households and commercial sectors are required to purchase designated VBWF bags to throw away their garbage under the VBWF system. This way, the public has more incentive to generate less waste because they pay for waste treatment in proportion to the amount they dispose. By providing a free collection mechanism for recyclable waste, VBWF induces the public to be more active in waste separation and promotes waste recycling.


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2003
Reports and Books
Bamboo Biodiversity: Asia-Pacific Region
United Nations Environment Programme

UNEP-WCMC Biodiversity Series 14. Bamboos are distinct and fascinating plants, with a wide range of values and uses. They play a significant role in biodiversity conservation and contribute to soil and water management. They are important for biomass production and play an increasing role in local and world economies. This study used an innovative approach to map potential current distibutions of nearly 1 000 individual bamboo species that occur naturally within remaining forests of the Asia-Pacific region. The maps were also combined to generate regional maps showing potential species and generic richness. By quantifying the area of forest cover remaining within each species' range, this study shows that more than 400 bamboo species are potentially threatened by the destruction of natural forest cover. Conservation and sustainable management of wild populations of bamboo should be high priority, especially where diversity is high or deforestation is a significant threat.


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2003