Reports and Books
Action on ozone 2000
United Nations Environment Programme

This is the fourth edition of Action on Ozone produced by UNEP. The scientific evidence clearly shows the beginnings of a fall in the concentrations of the dangerous chemicals in the lower atmosphere which is now being translated into a similar fall in the stratosphere, where the ozone is destroyed. The ozone layer is predicted to start to recover in the next one or two decades, and should be restored to full health by the middle of the new century.


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2000
Reports and Books
Case studies on alternatives to methyl bromide: technologies with low environmental impact
United Nations Environment Programme

Provides methyl bromide users with information that will assist them in selecting commercially available, low impact (i.e., environmentally friendly) alternatives to methyl bromide. This publication is comprised of 18 case studies that illustrate non-chemical alternative techniques successfully used across the globe for major crops/commodities that use methyl bromide. The case studies provide illustrations of a range of biological and non-chemical alternatives.


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2000
Reports and Books
Overview of the Land-based Sources and Activities affecting the Marine Environment in the East Asian Seas: UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 173
United Nations Environment Programme

East Asian seas are bordered by some of the most populous nations in the world and have been undergoing rapid industrialization and social and economic developments. The heavy reliance on marine resources by these countries demand continued vigilance on ensuring the environmental sustainability for the littoral states and for the welfare of the future generation. The Action plan for the protection and sustainable development of the coastal and marine areas of the East Asian Seas region covers coastal and marine areas of Australia, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines, Viet Nam, Singapore, The republic of Korea and Thailand.


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2000
Reports and Books
Decision Time Cloud Forests
United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization

At a Tropical Montane Cloud Forest workshop held at Cambridge, U.K. in July 1998, 30 scientists, professional managers, and NGO conservation group members representing more than 14 countries and all global regions, concluded that there is insufficient public and political awareness of the status and values of Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCF). The group suggested that a science-based pop-doc could be an effective initial action to remedy this. What follows is a response to that recommendation. It documents some of the scientific information that will be of interest to other scientists and managers of TMCF, but not overwhelming for a lay reader who is seeking to become more informed about these remarkable ecosystems. The purpose of this booklet, therefore, is to: Impart an understanding of what these TMCFs are and how they function, based on the best science currently available, incomplete though that information is||Engender an appreciation of the values of TMCFs and why they are important to humans and our biological consorts on this planet Earth||Develop an awareness of the forces that threaten these ecosystems and cause the losses that are resulting from our resource development activities||Arouse a concern that will influence the way and speed with which research, management, protection and policy are carried out.


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2000
Reports and Books
Second ASEAN State of the Environment Report
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

The ASEAN State of the Environment Report 2000 (SoER2), the second in the series presents a portrait of the condition of the environment and natural resources in ASEAN. It discusses the socio-economic factors and external pressures affecting the environment and its management. It takes an integrated approach in presenting the facts in line with the concept of sustainable development. The Report highlights what ASEAN has done to protect the environment and to promote sustainable development. It offers a glimpse of the prospects and challenges facing the region. At the same time, SoER2 serves as an authoritative factual manual for all who are engaged in environmental planning and intervention. It should help them to review these initiatives in terms of their impact and the lessons learnt.


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2000
GEO
Estado Ambientale de Goiás - GEO Goiás
Brazil, Ministério do Meio Ambiente

O presente documento busca apresentar o rebatimento, no território do Estado de Goiás, dos impactos resultantes de sua ocupação e utilização em atividades antrópicas, e dos efeitos gerados a partir de políticas públicas e ações do Estado, de agentes econômicos e da sociedade civil.


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2000
Reports and Books
Trinidad and Tobago: State of the Environment Report 2000
Trinidad and Tobago, Environmental Management Authority

This Report provides an analysis and status of air pollution in Trinidad and Tobago because of the critical importance of air quality in the sustainable management of the environment and human health. Trinidad and Tobago is the most industrialized country in the Commonwealth Caribbean region and suffers the attendant environmental problems associated with the production of oil, natural gas and petrochemicals in addition to rum, soap, paint and wood products. It is not surprising therefore to find a situation in which industrial pollution particularly from oil, gas and the downstream petrochemical industry is a critical environmental issue. Furthermore the fact that Trinidad & Tobago has the highest motorization (vehicles per capita) level in Latin America and the Caribbean results in the transportation sector having a significant impact on air quality. Trinidad and Tobago therefore needs to address the environmental implications of the energy and transport sectors.


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2000
GEO
GEO: Latin America and the Caribbean: Environment outlook 2000
United Nations Environment Programme

The two major causes of global environmental degradation are the continuing poverty of the majority of the planet’s inhabitants and excessive consumption by the minority (UNEP 1999a). In Latin America and the Caribbean – as in other regions of the world – many socio-economic pressures have an impact on the environment. Poverty and inequality of income are doubtless among the leading ones. Others are unsustainable agriculture, industrial development and tourism, unplanned urbanization, demographic growth, and population density. Nevertheless, the countries in the region have important climatic, biophysical, geomorphological and socio-economic differences, and this diversity makes generalized environmental policy application difficult. Three major environmental issues stand out in the region. The first concerns the region’s urban areas: three-quarters of the population live in large cities where air quality threatens human health and water shortage is common. The second problem is the depletion and destruction of forest resources, mainly in the Amazon Basin, and the threat this implies in terms of biodiversity. The third issue relates to the possible regional impact of global climate change, as reflected in phenomena such as forest fires, natural disasters such as hurricanes and floods, and the rise of sea level which threatens many coastal cities in the region and productive land on island states. During the past decade, concern for environmental issues has increased markedly and many environmental institutions and policies have been created. Nevertheless, these changes have not improved environmental stewardship significantly. Environmental management continues to concentrate on sectoral perspectives without coherent and explicit integration with economic and social strategies. The lack of financing, technology, personnel and training, and – in some cases – excessively large and complex legal frameworks, are the most common problems. Increasing environmental awareness must be reinforced through a process of environmental education and information dissemination. Economic growth of countries in the region still relies on export growth and foreign capital inflows, regardless of the consequences for the environment and with no internalization of the environmental costs of this type of policy.


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2000
GEO
Environment Outlook of Cuba 2000 - GEO Cuba
Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment, Cuba (CITMA)

Integrated environmental assessment of Cuba using the GEO methodology. This report was completed by the Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment, Cuba (CITMA) in 2001. The report follows the GEO structure, including sections on the environmental situation, existing policy responses and future outlook.


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2000
GEO
State of the Environment Report 2000 - GEO Barbados
Ministry of Physical Development and Environment - Barbados

The report is the first major synthesis document of its kind, since the 1992 Barbados National Report to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. The purpose of the present report is to provide an assessment of selected key environmental resources, indicators and themes, identified by a wide range of stakeholders to be of vital importance to Barbados, if the goal of sustainable development is to be achieved. The principal themes examined are land resources, energy and mineral assets, freshwater, coastal and marine resources, biodiversity, atmosphere and climate, and waste management. All of these are intrinsically linked to Barbados economic and social development. It is the Government's wish that the report should serve as an accurate source of information to all citizens, as well as international interests. It is also designed to provide a platform on which future analyses can be built and a yardstick against which Barbados' stewardship in the area of environmental resource management can be objectively assessed.


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2000