Reports and Books
1997 United Nations List of Protected Areas
World Conservation Monitoring Centre, International Union for Conservation for the Nature and Natural Resources

The United Nations List of Protected Areas is an essential reference document for ail who want to understand the progress made in responding to the challenges of biodiversity loss and other environmental threats around the world. It is a record of extraordinary human achievement over 125 years - a commitment by nations, peoples, groups and individuals to safeguard areas of land and sea from destruction. Protected areas represent human ideals at their best - they express a long term vision and a broad sense of responsibility towards people and nature.


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1997
Serials
Ozonaction newsletter no. 22
United Nations Environment Programme

Newsletter dedicated to the protection of the ozone layer and implementation of Montreal Protocol. This is a quarterly publication which details Ozone action programme under the multilateral fund.


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1997
Reports and Books
Opportunistic Settlers and the Problem of the Ctenophore Mnemiopsis Leidyi Invasion in the Black Sea. GESAMP Reports and Studies No. 58
Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP)

Opportunistic Settlers and the Problem of the Ctenophore Mnemiopsis Leidyi Invasion in the Black Sea


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1997
Manuals and Guides
Technical guidelines on wastes comprising or containing PCBs, PCTs;PBBs
United Nations Environment Programme

This Guideline addresses the three classes of PCBs, PCTs and PBBs. PCBs represent by far the most significant group in terms of quantities originally produced, the volumes of waste requiring disposal, and the environmental significance of past, present and future waste disposal practices. PCBs have been studied much more than PCTs and PBBs, and hence the information available relates mainly to PCBs. In may respects, the three groups of substances display similar characteristics, and can cause similar problems if not handled properly.


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1997
Manuals and Guides
Environmental management in oil and gas exploration and production
United Nations Environment Programme

These guidelines provide an overview of environmental issues in the oil and gas exploration and production industry, and of the best approaches to achieving high environmental performance in all parts of the world. Management systems and practices, technologies and procedures are described that prevent and minimize impact.


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1997
Reports and Books
Pro-poor tourism: harnessing the world's largest industry for the world's poor
United Nations Environment Programme

Tourism is one of the world's largest industries, generating an estimated 11%1 of global Gross Domestic Product (GDP), employing 200 million people and transporting nearly 700 million international travellers per year a figure that is expected to double by 2020. Developing countries currently have only a minority share of the international tourism market (approximately 30%) but this is growing. International tourism arrivals in developing countries have grown by an average of 9.5% per year since 1990, compared to 4.6% worldwide. The tourism industry makes important contributions to the economies of developing countries, particularly to foreign exchange earnings, employment, and GDP.


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1997
Reports and Books
Implications of Proposed CO2 Emissions Limitations
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

This technical report is aimed at providing information on the implications of Annex I country CO2 emissions for global CO2 emissions and the consequences of these emissions limitations for CO2 concentration. This report gives a summary of the results of this study looking at various factors namely: emissions, stabilization, concentration and temperature and sea level. A comprehensive description and quantification of emissions limitation proposals is made by the report. It also discusses global emissions under the emissions limitation proposals relative to the requirements of the CO2 concentration stabilization (Article 2 of the Framework Convention on Climate Change). It also presents a proposal on emissions limitations relative to stabilization requirements. The results of calculations for the consequences on the global mean temperature and sea level as a result of the proposed CO2 emissions limitations is also presented in this report.


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1997
Reports and Books
A global overview of wetland and marine protected areas on the World Heritage List
United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (United Nations Environment Programme-WCMC)

This working paper provides a global overview of the current coverage of existing World Heritage sites with wetland and marine values and suggests potential wetland areas which may merit future nomination to the World Heritage List. Wetlands are among the most productive natural environments on earth. They provide substantial social and economic benefits to humans as well as habitat for numerous species. With only an estimated 5.7 million sq. km of wetlands remaining in the world, they continue to be one of the most threatened biomes.


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1997
Reports and Books
An Introduction to the Simple Climate Models used in the IPCC Second Assessment Report
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

This technical report is aimed at introducing the climate system and simple climate models (SCMs). This report has two objectives namely: to explain how SCMs work, the processes that are induced in them, what their strengths and weaknesses are in relation to more complex models and the purposes to which they are applied. The second objective is to fully document the procedures and assumptions used to generate the trace gas concentration, global mean temperature change and global mean sea level rise projections. This report also attempts to reflect the importance of this document as tools for scientific and policy analysis. It further extensively analyses the global climate and climate system specifically looking at human effects to the composition of the atmosphere and cloud, surface and dynamical interactions between clouds, land surface, oceans and atmospheric motions. This analysis is further made by an assessment of radiative forcing, fast and slow feedbacks, climate sensitivity and regional climate response. The report also examines the hierarchical structure of the atmosphere and ocean climate models, carbon cycle models, atmospheric chemistry and aerosols model, models of ice sheets, computes the rise in sea level and utilization of simple and complex models in policy development. This report further describes the simple climate models used in the IPCC Second Assessment Report and makes a comparison of surface temperature changes and ocean thermal expansion as stimulated by atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) and SCMs.


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1997

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