Tagged on: Reports and Books

Reports and Books
Arsenic - Environmental Health Criteria 18
United Nations Environment Programme, World Health Organization, International Labour Organisation

Arsenic is a ubiquitous element with metalloid properties. Its chemistry is complex and there are many different compounds of both inorganic and organic arsenic. In nature, it is widely distributed in a number of minerals, mainly as the arsenides of copper, nickel, and iron, or as arsenic sulfide or oxide. In water, arsenic is usually found in the form of arsenate or arsenite. Methylated arsenic compounds occur naturally in the environment as the result of biological activity. The most important commercial compound, arsenic(III) oxide, is produced as a by-product in the smelting of copper and lead ores. Arsenic compounds are mainly used in agriculture and forestry as pesticides, herbicides, and silvicides; smaller amounts are used in the glass and ceramics industries and as feed additives.


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Reports and Books
Hydrogen Sulfide - Environmental Health Criteria 19
United Nations Environment Programme, World Health Organization, International Labour Organisation

Hydrogen sulfide is a colourless gas with a characteristic odour that is soluble in various liquids including water, alcohol, ether, and solutions of amines, alkali carbonates, and bicarbonates. It can undergo a number of oxidation reactions to yield principal products consisting of sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, or elemental sulfur. Reaction rates and oxidation products depend on the nature of the oxidizing agent. Hydrogen sulfide is one of the principal compounds involved in the natural cycle of sulfur in the environment. It occurs in volcanic gases and is produced by bacterial action during the decay of both plant and animal protein. It can also be produced by bacteria through the direct reduction of sulfate. Significant concentrations of hydrogen sulfide occur in some natural gas fields and in geothermally active areas.


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Reports and Books
Selected Petroleum Products - Environmental Health Criteria 20
United Nations Environment Programme, World Health Organization, International Labour Organisation

The purpose of this document is to review and evaluate available information on the biological effects of some petroleum products, and to provide a scientific basis for decisions aimed at the protection of human health from the adverse consequences of exposure to these substances in both the occupational and general environments.


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Reports and Books
Climate Action: Assisting Business Towards Carbon Neutrality - Special Focus on Africa and Sustainable Cities
United Nations Environment Programme

Negotiations on how over 190 countries can move forward on climate change come to Durban, South Africa, amid concerns that the gap between scientific reality and political ambition remains firmly in place and may be widening. There are a multitude of encouraging developments - in 2010, for example, over US$210 billion was invested in renewable energies in countries from Germany to China, and from the United States to Mexico, Kenya and South Africa. And yet progress remains too far behind the curve in terms of the size, scale and pace of what is needed to keep a global temperature rise under 2°C this century.


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Reports and Books
Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride - Environmental Health Criteria 21
United Nations Environment Programme, World Health Organization, International Labour Organisation

The major sources of exposure to chlorine and hydrogen chloride that are of significance for human health are found in industry. Both chlorine and hydrogen chloride are corrosive to most construction materials, as well as tissue, and closed process systems are used to contain the compounds. Exposure mainly occurs as a result of plant malfunction or through accidental releases.


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Reports and Books
Ultrasound - Environmental Health Criteria 22
United Nations Environment Programme, World Health Organization, International Labour Organisation

This document comprises a review of data, which are concerned with the effects of ultrasound exposure on biological systems, and are pertinent to the evaluation of health risks for man. The purpose of this criteria document is to provide information for health authorities and regulatory agencies on the possible effects of ultrasound exposure on human health and to give guidance on the assessment of risks from medical, occupational, and general population exposure to ultrasound. Subjects briefly reviewed include: the physical characteristics of ultrasound fields; measurement techniques; sources and applications of ultrasound; levels of exposure from devices in common use; mechanisms of interaction; biological effects; and guidance on the development of protective measures such as regulations or sate-use guidelines.


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Reports and Books
Titanium - Environmental Health Criteria 24
United Nations Environment Programme, World Health Organization

Titanium is a grey metal with an atomic number of 22 and a relative atomic mass of 47.9. It is extremely resistant to corrosion and, in the form of a powder or dust, is highly flammable and explosive. The most common oxidation state of titanium is +4, but +3 and +2 states also exist. Titanium occurs in both a cationic state (e.g., titanium chlorides, phosphates, and sulfates) and an anionic state (e.g., calcium, iron, and sodium titanates). Metallic titanium, titanium dioxide, and titanium tetrachloride are the compounds most widely used in industry.


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Reports and Books
Climate Crisis: The Societal Impacts Associated with the 1982-83 Worldwide Climate Anomalies
United Nations Environment Programme, United States National Center of Atmospheric Research, Environmental and Societal Impacts Group

Report based on the workshop on the Economic and Societal Impacts Associated with the 1982-83 Worldwide Climate Anomalies, 11-13 November 1985, Lugano, Switzerland, organized and financed by the United Nations Environment Programme and the Environmental and Societal Impacts Group of the National Center for Atmospheric Research.These case studies briefly describe the climate situation that transpired during 1982-83. They then identify some of the societal and environmental impacts of the climate anomalies of the period. The case studies are clearly meant to be illustrative and not exhaustive. They provide a set of baseline studies against which future similar studies might be compared. Most likely, not all of these climate anomalies will prove to have been directly or indirectly related to the occurrence of ENSO events. In addition, the strength of those teleconnections that prove to be valid will have to be defined.


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Reports and Books
Climatic Change and the Mediterranean: Environmental and Societal Impacts of Climatic Change and Sea-level Rise in the Mediterranean Region
United Nations Environment Programme

This book deals with the present-day environmental and demographic, economic and sociological trends in the Mediterranean area with particular emphasis on the possible impact of climatic change and corresponding sea-level rise. A 1.5°C increase in temperature would lead to a major increase in land degradation, deterioration of water resources, decline in agricultural production and damage to natural, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The future impacts on Mediterranean society of non-climatic factors (e.g. population increases and present development plans) may far exceed the direct impacts of, climate change. Non-climate factors will cause continuous increases in society's vulnerability to climatic stress, particularly in the South. Together, these demographic and climatic changes should increase the probability of catastrophic events and hasten their occurrence.


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Reports and Books
Climatic Change in the Intra-Americas Sea: Implications of Future Climate on the Ecosystems and Socio-economic Structure in the Marine and Coastal Regions of the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Bahamas and the Northeast Coast of South America
United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission

This book provides the first expert and comprehensive account of the implications that global warming and sea-level rise will have on the ecosystems and socio- economic structure in the marine and coastal regions of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, Bahamas, Bermuda and the Northeast Coast of South America. Coverage is given to such topics as modelling future climatic change, physical process and effects, ecological effects, and socio-economic effects including the impact on human health. Climatic change in the Intra-Americas sea uniquely brings together authoritative accounts from oceanographers, meteorologists, ecologists and social scientists as part of a project covered by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO It is designed for all those sociologists, scientists, students, politicians and policy makers who increasingly need to know about the detailed effects of climatic change on people and places. The first full study of climatic change impact in the Intra-Americas Sea, the book contains broad and integrated coverage on both natural and man-made environments, and features: an unique chapter on exploratory PC-based modelling: of socio-economic impacts on climatic change.


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