Tagged on: Latin America and the Caribbean

Reports and Books
UN-REDD Rules of Procedure and Operational Guidance
United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, United Nations Development Programmeme

The present document is an update of the UN-­‐REDD Rules of Procedure approved at the First Policy Board (March 2009) to reflect subsequent Policy Board decisions that amended those rules. Please note that this refers exclusively to the Rules of Procedure (pages 5-­‐9 only). The Operational Guidance (pages 10-­‐14) has not been amended.


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2014
Southeast Pacific Data and Information Network in Support of Integrated Coastal Area Management (SPINCAM) (IOC-UNESCO/Flanders/CPPS
Julian Reyna

Presentation at the Technical workshop on selecting indicators for the state of regional seas


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2014
Reports and Books
Status and Trends of Caribbean Coral Reefs: 1970-2012
Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network

This report is the most detailed and comprehensive study of its kind published to date – the result of the work of 90 experts over the course of three years. It contains the analysis of more than 35,000 surveys conducted at 90 Caribbean locations since 1970, including studies of corals, seaweeds, grazing sea urchins and fish. The results show that the Caribbean corals have declined by more than 50% since the 1970s. But according to the authors, restoring parrotfish populations and improving other management strategies, such as protection from overfishing and excessive coastal pollution, could help the reefs recover and make them more resilient to future climate change impacts. Key findings of the report: There has been a dramatic decline in Caribbean corals of more than 50% since the 1970s. The decline is not uniform and correlates only weakly with local extreme heating events, instead being mainly attributed to the severity of local stressors, in particular tourism, overfishing and pollution. Whilst climate change has badly affected Caribbean corals and continues to be a major threat, well-managed reefs have bounced back suggesting that climate change is not the main determinant of current Caribbean coral health and that good management practices can save larger areas of reef if tough choices are made. Loss of the two main grazers, parrotfish and sea urchin, has been a key driver of coral decline in the region as it breaks the delicate balance of coral ecosystems and allows algae to smother reefs The massive outbreak of coral diseases and mass die-off of sea urchin close to the Panama Canal suggest that the order-of-magnitude increase in bulk shipping in the 1960s and 1970s has introduced pathogens and invasive species that have since spread in the Caribbean. Recommendations made in the report: 1.,, Adopt conservation and fisheries management strategies that lead to the restoration of parrotfish populations and so restore the balance between algae and coral that characterises healthy coral reefs||2.,, Maximise the effect of those management strategies by incorporating necessary resources for outreach, compliance, enforcement and the examination of alternative livelihoods for those that may be affected by restrictions on the take of parrotfish||3.,, Consider listing the parrotfish in the Annex II and III of the SPAW Protocol (The Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife) in addition to highlighting the issue of reef herbivory in relevant Caribbean fisheries fora||4.,, Engage with indigenous and local communities and other stakeholders to communicate the benefits of such strategies for coral reef ecosystems, the replenishment of fisheries stocks and communities


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2014
Reports and Books
SIDS in numbers
Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS)
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2013
Reports and Books
Ecosystem based approaches for climate change adaptation in Caribbean SIDS
Pascal Peduzzi (United Nations Environment Programme/DEWA/GRID-Geneva), Alexander Wolf (ZMT Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Biology)

Existing climate variability and global climate change are major threat stosustainable development in the Caribbean, particularly for the Small Island Developing States(SIDS). Hurricanes, storms urges and extreme rainfall events cause major damages to the assets of coastal populations, infrastructure and ecosystems. Climate projections suggest that sea level rise(SLR) and the increase of sea water temperature will continue, as well as the intensity and frequency of extreme weather events are likely to increase. Ecosystem based Adaptation(EbA) approaches, combining both engineered and community based benefits, are promising to prepare SIDS for future climate change scenarios. This reviewiew identifies Caribbean SIDS which highly depend on their marine ecosystems and are particularly vulnerable to climate change related risks and provides a recommendation on SIDS which are most suitable for EbA approaches including restoration and climate change adaptation efforts. Theselection was based on an assessment of the most important coastal ecosystems, namely mangrove forests, seagrass meadows and coral reefs, which can mitigate the consequences of climate change. In particular, the ecosystems extent, status, and potential to climate change adaptation(CCA) were assessed. The existence of protected areas and the management of those areas were considered additional assets as they constitute absolute pre-requisites for any EbA approach addressing restoration efforts, to become successful in the long run. The island states of Grenada, SantaLucia, Jamaica, SaintVincent & the Grenadines and The Bahamas display suitable conditions, given certain prerequisites are to be met, for restoration efforts of various kinds to be implemented in the near future.


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2013
Book
International Environmental Law-making and Diplomacy Review 2012
United Nations Environment Programme, University of Eastern Finland

The aim of the Course is to equip present and future negotiators of multilateral environmental agreements with the information and experiences of others in the area of international environmental law-making in order to improve the impact and implementation of these key treaties.


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2013
Reports and Books
An assessment of the economic and social impacts of climate change on the energy sector in the Caribbean
United Nations (UN) - Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)

The present report assesses the economic and social impacts of climate change on the energy sector in Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Cuba, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago. In the study, the Artificial Neural Network methodology was employed to model the relationship between climate change and energy demand. The viability of the actions proposed were assessed using cost benefit analyses based on models from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of the United States of America.


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2013
Reports and Books
Integrated Watershed and Coastal Areas Management (IWCAM) Atlas
United Nations Environment Programme, The Global Environment Facility (GEF)

In the Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS), high population densities, combined with population growth, urbanization and increased development, particularly residential and tourist resort development, has led to the contamination of underlying aquifers and surface water, and deterioration of coastal water quality. The overall objective of this Project is to strengthen the commitment and capacity of the participating countries to implement an integrated approach to the management of watersheds and coastal areas. The long-term goal is to enhance the capacity of the countries to plan and manage their aquatic resources and ecosystems on a sustainable basis. In particular, project activities will be focusing on improvements in integrated freshwater basin-coastal area management on each island of the regional groupings of Caribbean SIDS.


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2012
Reports and Books
Modelling the Transformational Impacts and Costs of Sea Level Rise in the Caribbean
United Nations Development Programmeme (United Nations Development Programmeme)

This report, commissioned by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Sub Regional Office for Barbados and the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), focuses on the recommendations, which were prioritised by the Caribbean Community (CARICOM)Task Force on Climate Change and Development to be undertaken as soon as possible: (1) improving climate change modelling for taking informed decisions, and (2) improving predictions of impacts on key sectors and assessing adaptation measures. Specifically, this report provides a detailed and vigorous assessment of the losses and damages associated with SLR impacts on the population, ecosystems and key economic sectors in CARICOM.


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2011
Reports and Books
Perspectivas del Medio Ambiente en el Sistema Hídrico Titicaca-Desaguadero-Poopó-Salar de Coipasa (TDPS)-GEO Titicaca.
United Nations Environment Programme (PNUMA)

Después de un prolongado proceso de intenso trabajo y la participación de más de medio centenar de científicos y expertos de Bolivia y Perú, es sumamente grato para el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente (PNUMA) presentar el informe Perspectivas del Medio Ambiente en el Sistema Hídrico Titicaca-Desaguadero-Poopó-Salar de Coipasa (TDPS)-GEO Titicaca. Bajo la metodología GEO (Global Environment Outlook), este singular informe ofrece una evaluación completa e integral del estado del ecosistema de la porción boliviano-peruana de la cuenca endorreica del altiplano, la que junto a las del Amazonas y el río de la Plata, se constituye en uno de los tres principales sistemas hídricos del subcontinente sudamericano. El territorio del Sistema TDPS, situado entre los 3.600 y los 6.500 msnm, alberga una variedad excepcional de especies de flora y fauna, constituyéndose en una reserva genética de importancia mundial, en particular, considerando la agrobiodiversidad resultante de prácticas culturales desarrolladas durante milenios por los pueblos originarios de los Andes centrales –entre la que destacan alimentos tan importantes como la papa y la quinua, o la domesticación de la llama, la alpaca y otros camélidos endémicos de la región–, elementos que explican, a su vez, la supervivencia de dichos pueblos que constituyen hasta el presente las pujantes mayorías de la población local.


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2011