Tagged on: Africa

Reports and Books
Aligning Africa’s Financial System with Sustainable Development: Briefing
United Nations Environment Programme

Adequate, appropriate finance is crucial for Africa’s sustainable development. Its availability depends on African countries developing financial systems that can effectively draw on and deploy to best use domestic and international, private and public sources. With the growing importance, in particular, of both domestic sources of finance, and private investment (both domestic and international), it is critically important that Africa’s financial and capital markets develop in ways that will promote sustainable development on the continent. Aligning a financial system with sustainable development does not happen automatically. The increasing scale and sophistication of Africa’s financial system alone will not achieve it. Indeed, international evidence amply demonstrates that financial and capital markets can — and often do — become detached and fail to adequately serve the long-term needs of inclusive sustainable development.


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2015
Serials
UNEP in Africa Newsletter January - February
United Nations Environment Programme

UNEP Regional Office for Africa Newsletter


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2015
Reports and Books
Africa's Adaptation Gap 2: Bridging the Gap – Mobilising Sources - Technical Report
United Nations Environment Programme

Climate change represents a clear and present danger to the development prospects of Africa. African countries are going to have to adapt to protect their peoples from the harsh impacts of climate change and to ensure that they are not derailed from their current development pathways. Developed country Parties to the Climate Convention committed to “assist the developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change in meeting costs of adaptation to those adverse effects.” (UNFCCC Articles 4.3 and 4.4) The first edition of Africa’s Adaptation Gap Technical report (AAGr1) in 2013 provided an overview of the most relevant impacts of climate change in different sectors across Africa, as well as cost estimates for adaptation. This report (2015 AAGr2) is directed towards exploring the extent to which African countries can contribute to closing the adaptation gap, in order to better understand the gap in the resources that will be needed and, thereby, the likely extent to which international climate finance must be urgently raised, leveraged and deployed in service of Africa’s pressing adaptation needs.


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2015
Reports and Books
The Economics of Land Degradation in Africa: Benefits of Action Outweigh the Costs;A complementary report to the ELD Initiative
United Nations Environment Programme

Land degradation and desertification are among of the world’s greatest environmental challenges. It is estimated that desertification affects about 33 % of the global land surface, and that over the past 40 years erosion has removed nearly one-third of the world’s arable land from production. Africa is particularly vulnerable to land degradation and desertification, and it is the most severely affected region. Desertification affects around 45 % of Africa’s land area, with 55 % of this area at high or very high risk of further degradation. It is often considered that land degradation in Africa has been vastly detrimental to agricultural ecosystems and crop production and thus an impediment in achieving food security and improving livelihoods. However, much of the literature lacks empirical underpinnings, quantifying this loss and assessing the cost of inaction, the cost of action, and benefits of action against land degradation. From the viewpoint of land degradation as a state and a process, the cost of action against land degradation includes investments to restore degraded land and reduce the rate of degradation of degrading land. This can be achieved by adopting mechanical and biological measures, and by improving land productivity. The returns to such investments are considered as benefits of action through prevention of crop damages and the derived loss in productivity. There are several other ecosystem services, on-site as well as o«-site, but due to the lack of data availability we were constrained in estimating the comprehensive benefits of action. Of course the loss in productivity and hence the benefit of action would vary based on the state and process of land degradation. The overarching aim of this exercise is to assess the cost of inaction and benefit of taking action by countries to address erosion induced soil nutrient depletion as a part of land degradation in arable lands used for cereal production. By providing continental level empirical analysis of a cropland area of 105 million hectares (accounting for 45 % of total arable land in the continent) across 42 countries in Africa over a span of 15 years (starting from 2016), the fundamental objective is to align empirical data and economic valuation to help inform policy decisions in the future. The report reviews the regional level data on the economic costs of soil erosion related to land degradation. It also analyzes the limitations and challenges of using such data and the discrepancies emerging from various methodologies. It also delves into the methodological approach utilized for regional level estimates and the cost benefit analysis of taking action against soil- erosion-induced nutrient losses on arable lands used for cereal production, which is one aspect of land degradation. This is done by using an econometric modelling approach that estimates the costs of inaction, costs of action and the net benefits of action against erosion-induced soil nutrient depletion using national level economic and biophysical data. It focuses on the regional estimates for Africa and a cost-benefit analysis of soil nutrient inflows versus soil nutrient outflows, or what is considered the overall soil nutrient balance. The results indicate that in the next 15 years, starting from 2016, inaction against soil erosion will lead to a total annual loss of NPK nutrients of about 4.74 million tons/year, worth approximately 72.40 billion PPP USD in present value, which is equivalent to 5.09 billion PPP USD per year. As a supporting ecosystem service, the loss of NPK nutrients will lead to a cost in the provisioning of ecosystem services in the form of cereal yields. A one percent increase in the total amounts of nutrients depleted from all the croplands of a country causes a 1.254 Kg/ha decline in cereal yield. In other words, countries with a higher rates of total nutrient depletion from croplands have relatively lower cereal yield per hectare than countries with lower nutrient depletion. Thus, the present value of net benefits of taking action against soil erosion on the 105 million hectares of croplands in the 42 countries over the next 15 years (2016-2030) will account for about 2.48 trillion PPP USD or 62.4 billion USD per year, which is equivalent to 5.31 % of their average Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for 2010–2012. This tells us that by taking action against soil-erosion-induced nutrient depletion in cereal croplands in the period 2016–30, the economies of the 42 countries could grow at an average rate of 5.31 % annually compared to 2010–2012 levels. Considering that the annuity value of the cost of inaction is 12.3 % of the average annual GDP of these 42 countries over the same period, the cumulative cost of inaction, which in other words measures the maximum benefits of action, is far greater than the cumulative cost of action.


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2015
Serials
UNEP in Africa Newsletter March - April
United Nations Environment Programme

UNEP Regional Office for Africa Newsletter


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2015
Reports and Books
UNEP in Africa Newsletter September - October
United Nations Environment Programme

UNEP Regional Office for Africa Newsletter


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2015
Reports and Books
Accelerating youth action towards Africa’s Greener Future
United Nations Environment Programme

This paper retraces the path that UNEP has travelled in its dealings with African youth. The paper casts an eye on the past in order to draw vital lessons that inform the way forward. It discusses and lays out a roadmap that will accelerate youth action towards Africa’s greener future. The roadmap uses the core competencies and attributes of African youth, which include: high demographics, enthusiasm, technological savvy and professionalism.


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2015
Serials
UNEP in Africa Newsletter May - June
United Nations Environment Programme

UNEP Regional Office for Africa Newsletter


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2015
Reports and Books
The role of forests in a green economy transformation in Africa
Maryanne Grieg-Gran, Steve Bass, Francesca Booker, Mike Day, United Nations Environment Programme, International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), UN-REDD Programme

This report explores the role of forests in a green economy transformation in Africa. Its aim is to present policymakers with a strong rationale for linking forests and REDD+ planning with green economy planning and investments. According to UNEP (2012), a green economy ‘results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities’. Africa is achieving high GDP growth rates but still faces challenges to reduce poverty and create sufficient jobs. As Africa’s economies are highly dependent on natural resources, the ability to generate growth in the future and meet wider development priorities will depend on what happens to key resources like forests. For this reason green economy approaches are increasingly relevant to Africa.


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2015
Reports and Books
The Regional State of the Coast Report: Western Indian Ocean
United Nations Environment Programme

The Regional State of Coast Report for the western Indian Ocean (WIO) is the first comprehensive regional synthesis to provide insights into the enormous economic potential around the WIO, the consequential demand for marine ecosystem goods and services to match the increasing human population, the pace and scale of environmental changes taking place in the region and the opportunities to avoid serious degradation in one of the world’s unique and highly biodiverse oceans. The report goes a step further and presents exploratory scenarios and policy analysis to better inform anticipatory planning and management of coastal and marine resources.


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2015